Chronology of Tensegrity


A chronology of events and publications relating to the history and advance of tensegrity.

Tensegrity History By Decade


Tensegrity Chronology, pre-1940's


1920 Karl Ioganson displays a proto-tensegrity system, called "Gleichgewichtkonstruktion". The relevance of this sculpture to tensegrity is disputed and was only uncovered in retrospect.



Tensegrity Chronology, 1940's



1940's David Georges Emmerich (Debrecen-Hungary, 1925-1996), probably inspired by Ioganson's structure, studies different kinds of structures as tensile prisms and more complex tensegrity systems, which he called "structures tendues et autotendants", tensile and self-stressed structures (see fig 2.3). As a result, he defined and patented his "reseaux autotendants," the same kind of structures that were being studied by Fuller and Snelson.
1948 summer. Fuller, teaching at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, USA. Fuller and Snelson meet. Snelson told Coplans: "Bucky was... talking of tension and compression... I started to think of something like a swinging pendulum sculpture. The sculpture consisted of a succession of forms: the lower one supporting the upper one and suspended by a girth of thread. It is slung and the sculpture moves like a spinal column; the form is very flexible. I did two or three sculptures like this and then it occurred to me that to remove the mobility would be a curious thing. I would then have these units separated from one another and retained rigidly in space if I tied the strings in a different manner. The only difference is that both compression members are completely free of one another. It has no top, bottom or sides, and could be placed into orbit."
1948 X-module by Snelson
1949 summer. Snelson shows Fuller his first Tensegrity sculpture.





Tensegrity Chronology, 1950's


1951 Festival of Britain displays the Skylon, a tensile sculpture held in place at one end by only three cables by architects Powell and Moya, and built by the engineer Felix Samuely.
1953 Minnesota University. Fuller realization at large scale of a rigid tensegrity structure with 270 non-identical rods. The structure is patented by Fuller later, in 1962.
1954 Patent: Fuller, R.B. Building construction, U.S. Patent No. 2,682,235, June 29, 1954.
1955 Fuller coins tensegrity as a contraction of “Tensional-Integrity”
1959 Oregon University. The first deresonated tensegrity with 270 identical rods. The structure is described in Synergetics as "isotropic tensegrity geodesic sphere: single bonded turbo triangles, forming a complex six frequency triacontahedron tensegrity."
1959 tensegrity displayed at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York.





Tensegrity Chronology, 1960's



1960 Long Beach State Collete. The realization of a rigid tensegrity structure in bamboo with a diameter of 14m. The outer ends of each element were calibrated with regards to the central point of the adjacent elements.
1961 Published: Fuller, R.B., “Tensegrity”, Portfolio and Art News Annual, No.4. pp.112- 127, 144, 148. Also available in http://www.rwgrayprojects.com/rbfnotes/fpapers/tensegrity/tenseg01.html
1961 Southern Illinois University. Basket weave tensegrity by Fuller. An interwoven dome of a 22m diameter, 3.4 of a sphere, approximately 15m high. The struts were made of wooden centine, segmented and interwoven, which permitted the cost to be sharply reduced. This geodesic also corresponds to the alternate breakdown of a 4v icosahedron, sectioned to 5/8 of a sphere.
1962 Patent: Fuller, R.B., Tensile-Integrity Structures, U.S. Patent No. 3,063,521, November 13, 1962.
1963 Trigonal Tower Aluminum and Steelon Wire by Snelson
1964 Patent: Emmerich, D.G.,, Construction de réseaux autotendants, French Patent No. 1,377,290, September 28, 1964
1964 Patent: Emmerich, D.G.,, Structures linéaires autotendants, French Patent No. 1,377,291, September 28, 1964
1964 Patent: Fuller, R.B., Suspension Building, U.S. Patent No. 3,139,957, July 7, 1964.
1965 Patent: Snelson, K., Continuous tension, discontinuous compression structures, U.S. Patent No. 3,169,611, February 16, 1965.
1966 Published: Emmerich, D. G., "Reseaux", International Conference on Space Structures, University of Surrey, pp.1059-1072.
1967 Patent: Fuller, R.B., Octahedronal building truss, U.S. Patent No. 3,354,591, November 28, 1967.
1967 Sculpture: Double Six by Snelson
1969 Sculpture: E. C. Column by Snelson





Tensegrity Chronology, 1970's



1972 Frei Otto for Summer Olympics structure is a tensile structure very close to tensegrity in design
1972 Published: Black, S.J., Cords and countercords. Proposal for a tensile building system. Unpublished BArch dissertation. School of Architecture, Queen’s University Belfast.
1972 Patent: Mogilner, G.A., Tensegrity Structure Puzzle, U.S. Patent No. 3,695,617, October 3, 1972.
1972 J. Stanley Black wrote an unpublished study which tried to recall the main concepts known at that time and to figure out some possible systems and configurations. Although it was a good attempt, the basis of tensegrity were not very clear at that moment, and his final design was not a reflection of a true tensegrity system, but something more similar to Levy and Geiger’s works (Geiger, 1988; Goosen et al., 1997; Setzer, 1992).
1972 12 strut right angled 3-way unit with double end-caps by Snelson
1973 René Motro begins to publish on Tensegrity, Topologie des structures discrètes. Incidence sur leur comportement mécanique. Autotendant icosaédrique. It was an internal note for the Laboratory of Civil Engineering of the University of Montpelier (France) about mechanical behaviour of this kind.
1975 Patent: Fuller, R.B., Non-symmetrical tensegrity, U.S. Patent No. 3,866,366, February 18, 1975.
1975 Published: Fuller, R.B., Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking, New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. Also available in http://www.rwgrayprojects.com/synergetics/synergetics.html
1975 Patent: Wiesner, S.J., Stressed structure for supporting weight, U.S. Patent No. 3,901,551, August 26, 1975.
1975 Term ”responsive architecture” coined by Negroponte for dynamically restructuring buildings
1975 Donald Ingber, undergraduate student at Yale, saw Needle Tower, suddenly understood that cells—previously thought to be sacks full of viscous liquid—might have strong, flexible frameworks that use tensegrity to stabilize themselves, and made a model of a cell using wooden dowels and elastic strings.
1975 Stephen Levin, a practicing orthopedic surgeon studying spinal mechanics, saw the Needle Tower and used it as a model for spine and, ultimately, organism mechanics.
1976 Published: Kenner, H., Geodesic Math and How to Use It, Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
1976 Published: Pugh, A., An Introduction to Tensegrity, Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
1978 Published: Calladine, C.R., “Buckminster Fuller's "tensegrity" structures and Clerk Maxwell's rules for the construction of stiff frames”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol.14, No.2, 1978, pp. 161-172.
1979 Patent: Miller, R.M., Piece of furniture, U.S. Patent No. 4,148,520, April 10, 1979.





Tensegrity Chronology, 1980's



1980 Patent: Kitrick; C.J.,, Tensegrity module structure and method of interconnecting the modules, U.S. Patent No. 4,207,715, June 17, 1980
1980 Published: Francis, A.J., Introducing Structures, Oxford: Pergammon Press.
1981 Published: Fuller, R.B., “Tensegrity”, Creative science and technology, February 1981. Also available in [[@http://www.bfi.org/inFullerswords/Tensegrity.pdf]]
1981 Published: Fox, H. N., “Portrait of an Atomist”, Catalog Essay for Kenneth Snelson Exhibition at Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., June - August 1981. Also available in http://www.kennethsnelson.net/icons/art.htm Tensegrity Structures and their Application to Architecture VI. Bibliography 195
1982 Fuller designed and developed deresonated Tensegrity dome [1]
1982 Published: Fuller, R.B., Correspondence with Robert Burkhardt, January 29 - March 18, 1982. Also available in http://www.bfi.org/burkhardt/section1.html
1982 Published: Levin, S.M., “Continuous Tension, Discontinuous Compression. A Model for Biomechanical Support of the Body”. Bulletin of Structural Integration, Rolf Institute, Bolder. pp.31-33. Also available in http://www.biotensegrity.com/continuous_tension_discontinuous_compression.php
1984 Published: Makowski, Z.S. (ed), Analysis, Design and Construction of Braced Domes, London: Granada Publishing Ltd. Tensegrity Structures and their Application to Architecture VI. Bibliography 198
1985 Published: Buchholdt, H.A., An introduction to cable roof structures, Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press.
1985 Published: IL - Institut Für Leichte Flächentragwerke, IL 31 Bamboo. [on-line], University of Stuttgart (Germany). http://bambus.rwth-aachen.de/eng/PDFFiles/IL%2031.pdf
1986 Published: Nelson, W.A.,, Telescoping strut members and tendons for constructing tensile integrity structures, U.S. Patent No. 4,614,502, September 30, 1986.
1987 Ariel Hanaor defines the main bidimensional assemblies of elementary self-equilibrated cells
1987 Nestorovic proposes metallic integrally tensioned cupola.
1987 Published: Hanaor, A., “Preliminary Investigation of Double-Layer Tensegrities”, in H.V. Topping, ed., Proceedings of International Conference on the Design and Construction of Non-conventional Structures (Vol.2), Edinburgh, Scotland: Civil- Comp Press.
1987 Published: Motro, R., “Tensegrity Systems for Double-Layer Space Structures”, in H.V. Topping, ed., Proceedings of International Conference on the Design and Construction of Non-conventional Structures (Vol.2), Edinburgh, Scotland: Civil- Comp Press.
1987 Published: Nestorovic, M., “Metallic Integrally Tensioned (Tensegrity) Cupola”, in H.V. Topping, ed., Proceedings of International Conference on the Design and Construction of Non-conventional Structures (Vol.2), Edinburgh, Scotland: Civil- Comp Press.
1987 Published: Walker, D., The great engineers. The Art of British Engineers 1837-1987, London: Academy Editions. Tensegrity Structures and their Application to Architecture VI. Bibliography 201
1988 Patent: Geiger, D.H., Roof structure, U.S. Patent No. 4,736,553, April 12, 1988.
1988 Published: Emmerich, D. G., Structures Tendues et Autotendantes, Paris: Ecole d'Architecture de Paris la Villette.
1988 Published: Kittner, C. and Quimby, S.R,, Compression-tension strut-cord units for tensile-integrity structures, U.S. Patent No. 4,731,962, March 22, 1988
1989 Published: Burrows, J., “Catalogue Introduction”, in The New York Academy of Sciences (ed.), Kenneth Snelson Exhibition: The Nature of Structure. New York (USA), January - April 1989.
1989 Published: Snelson, K., “Kenneth Snelson and Hans Christian von Baeyer: A Conversation”, in The New York Academy of Sciences (ed.), Kenneth Snelson Exhibition: The Nature of Structure. New York (USA), January - April 1989.
1989 Published: Snelson, K. and Von Baeyer, “Kenneth Snelson and Hans Christian von Baeyer: A Conversation”, in The New York Academy of Sciences (ed.), Kenneth Snelson Exhibition: The Nature of Structure. New York (USA), January - April 1989.





Tensegrity Chronology, 1990's



1990's Connelly researches a mathematical three dimensional generalization for tensegrities. Using the mathematical tools of group theory and representation theory and the capabilities of computers, he draws up a complete catalogue of tensegrities with detailed prescribed types of stability and symmetry, including some that have never been seen before.
1990 Patent: Huegy, C.W., Spiral helix tensegrity dome, U.S. Patent No. 4,901,483, February 20, 1990
1991 Published: K. J. Pienta, D. S. Coffey, Cellular harmonic information transfer through a tissue tensegrity-matrix system, in Medical Hypotheses, Volume 34, Issue 1, January 1991, Pages 88-95
1992 Published: András Recski, Werner Schwärzler, One-story buildings as tensegrity frameworks III, in Discrete Applied Mathematics, Volume 39, Issue 2, 22 October 1992, Pages 137-146
1992 Published: Setzer, S.W., Georgia Dome. Raise High the Record Roof, [on-line], New York: Columbia University. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/gsapp/BT/DOMES/GEORGIA/g-raise.html
1993 Published: Ingber, D.E., “Cellular Tensegrity: defining new rules of biological design that govern the cytoskeleton”. Journal of Cell Science, No.104, pp.613-627. Also available in http://www.childrenshospital.org/research/ingber/PDF/1993/JCellSci-Ingber.pdf
1993 Published: Joyce, J., Dubliners, Ware: Wordsworth Editions Limited.
1993 Published: Schodek, Daniel L., Structure in Sculpture, Cambridge, Mass. (USA): M.I.T. Press.
1994 Published: Cummings, Charles H. (1994): A Tensegrity Model for Osteopathy in the Cranial Field. In: Am Acad Osteopathy J; 1994;4:(2 summer) 9–27.
1994 Robert Burkhardt revises his Tensegrity Structures and their Application to Architecture
1994 Published: Burkhardt, R.W., A Practical Guide to Tensegrity Design, Cambridge (USA): Software Services. Tensegrity Structures and their Application to Architecture VI. Bibliography 193
1994 Published: Burkhardt, R.W., A practical guide to tensegrity design, [on-line], Cambridge (USA) http://www.channel1.com/users/bobwb/tenseg/book/cover.html
1994 Published: Donald E. Ingber, Laura Dike, Linda Hansen, Seth Karp, Helen Liley, Andrew Maniotis, Helen McNamee, David Mooney, George Plopper, John Sims, Ning Wang, Cellular Tensegrity: Exploring How Mechanical Changes in the Cytoskeleton Regulate Cell Growth, Migration, and Tissue Pattern during Morphogenesi, in International Review of Cytology, Volume 150, 1994, Pages 173-224
1995 Published: Cruickshank, D., “The 1951 Dome of Discovery, London”, The Architectural Review, No.197.1175, pp.80-85. Also available in http://www.packer34.freeserve.co.uk/dome.htm
1996 Patent: Terry, W.L., Tension braced dome structure, U.S. Patent No. 5,502,928, April 2, 1996.
1996 Published: Burstow, R., Symbols for ’51, the Royal Festival Hall, Skylon and Sculptures for the Festival of Britain, The Ballroom, Main Foyer, Royal Festival Hall, London, 2 March – 21 April 1996. Also available in http://www.packer34.freeserve.co.uk/symbols.htm CAC (California Energy Commission),, Energy Time Line –Year 1800 to 1899, [on-line] California. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/time_machine/1890-1900ce.html
1996 Published: Castañeda, C., “Tensegrity”, Readers of Infinity: A Journal of Applied Hermeneutics. Vol.1, No.1. Also available in http://www.castaneda.com/ CISC-Canadian Institute Of Steel Construction, Project gallery:
1996 Published: Dimitrije Stamenovi, Jeffrey J. Fredberg, Ning Wang, James P. Butler, Donald E. Ingber, "A Microstructural Approach to Cytoskeletal Mechanics based on Tensegrity", in Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 181, Issue 2, 21 July 1996, Pages 125-136
1996 Published: Flavin, P., Compression and Tension are good; Torque's a Killer, [on-line], http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/tenseg1.html
1996 Published: Shelter Systems, Tensegrity and Geodesic Yurts™ , Domes, and Tent Structures, [on-line], California http://www.shelter-systems.com/tensegrity.html
1997 Patent: Skelton, R.E.,, Deployable tendon-controlled structure, U.S. Patent No. 5,642,590, July 1, 1997
1997 Published: Deane, S.,. Reading in the dark. London: Vintage. Drew, P., Frei Otto. Form and structure, London: Crosby Lockwood Staples.
1997 Published: Gabriel, J.F., Beyond the Cube, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1997 Published: Gossen, P.A., Chen, D., and Mikhlin, E., The First Rigidly Clad "Tensegrity" Type Dome, The Crown Coliseum, Fayetteville, North Carolina, [online], USA: Geiger Engineers. Tensegrity Structures and their Application to Architecture VI. Bibliography 196 http://www.geigerengineers.com/techpaper.cfm?RecordID=1
1997 Published: LU, A., The Discovery of the BuckminsterFullerenes, [on-line], Edinburgh (Scotland). http://www.lexcie.zetnet.co.uk/buckminster.htm
1997 Published: Mijuca, D., Finite Element Analysis of Tensegrity Structures, [on-line], Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). http://www.matf.bg.ac.yu/~dmijuca/tensegrity.html
1997 Published: Stanton, J., Expo ’67 – Architecture, [on-line], Montreal (Canada). http://naid.sppsr.ucla.edu/expo67/map-docs/architecture.htm
1998 Patent: Goldsmith, E.M., Sports catch glove with stiffner, U.S. Patent No. 5,717,994, February 17, 1998
1998 Published: Castaneda published Magical Passes, containing a series of instructions for performing a set of Tensegrity movements. With the aid of the company Laugan Productions Castaneda also published instructional video recordings of Tensegrity movements.
1998 Published: Connelly, R. and Back, A., “Mathematics and Tensegrity”, American Scientist. Vol.86, No.2, March-April 1998.
1998 Published: Connelly, R. and Back, A., Catalogue of Symmetric Tensegrities, [online], Cornell University, Ithaca (USA) http://mathlab.cit.cornell.edu/visualization/tenseg/in_progress/short_top.html
1998 Published: Ingber, D.E., “The Architecture of Life”. Scientific American Magazine. January,1998. Also available in http://vv.arts.ucla.edu/projects/ingber/ingber.html
1998 Published: B. Eckes, P. Martin, H. Smola, D. Dogic, E. Colucci-Guyon, A. Maniotis, N. Wang, M. Aumailley, D. Ingber, C. Babinet, T. Krieg, "Disruption of tensegrity in vimentin-deficient fibroblasts causes delayed wound healing in fetal and adult mice, in Journal of Dermatological Science, Volume 16, Supplement 1, March 1998, Page S120
1998 Published: Bin-Bing Wang, "Cable-strut systems: part I — tensegrity", in Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 45, Issue 3, March 1998, Pages 281-289
1998 Published: Eckes, B., Martin, P., Smola, H., Dogic, D., Colucci-Guyon, E., Maniotis, A., Wang, N., Aumailley, M., Ingber, D., Babinet, C. and Krieg, T., “Disruption of tensegrity in vimentin-deficient fibroblasts causes delayed wound healing in fetal and adult mice”, Journal of Dermatological Science, Vol.16, Supplement 1, March 1998, pp.S120.
1998 Published: Janberg, N., Structurae: International Database and Gallery of Structures. [on-line], Ratingen (Germany). http://www.structurae.net/
1998 Published: S. Wendling, C. Oddou, D. Isabey, "Non-dimensional expression of the stiffening response of tensegrity structure as a function of strain: Application to cell mechanics, in Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 31, Supplement 1, July 1998, Page 174
1998 Published: Wang, B.B. and LI, Y.Y., “Definition of tensegrity systems. Can dispute be settled?". Proceedings of LSA98 “Lightweight structures in architectural engineering and construction”, Vol.2,, pp.713-719.
1998 Published: Wang, B.B, “Cable-strut systems: Part I - Tensegrity", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.45,, No.3, pp.281-289.
1999 Published: Burkhardt, R.W., A Technology for Designing Tensegrity Domes and Spheres, [on-line], Cambridge (USA) http://www.channel1.com/users/bobwb/prospect/prospect.htm#sec:app
1999 Published: Christopher S. Chen, Donald E. Ingber, "Tensegrity and mechanoregulation: from skeleton to cytoskeleton", in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Volume 7, Issue 1, January 1999, Pages 81-94
1999 Published: F. Thomas, J. Contreras, G. Bilbao, L. Invarardi, J. Thomas, "An improved technique for isolating pig islets: the importance of tensegrity in islet long-term culture viability, in Transplantation Proceedings, Volume 31, Issues 1-2, 3 February 1999, Pages 633-634
1999 Published: K. Kebiche, M. N. Kazi-Aoual, R. Motro, "Geometrical non-linear analysis of tensegrity systems", in Engineering Structures, Volume 21, Issue 9, September 1999, Pages 864-876
1999 Published: Kawaguchi, M.. Tatemichi, I. and Chen, P.S., “Optimum shapes of a cable dome structure”, Engineering Structures, Vol.21, No.8, August 1999, pp.719- 725.
1999 Published: Le Saux C., Bouderbala M., Cévaër F., Motro R., “Strut-Strut contact on numerical modelling of tensegrity systems folding”, 40h Anniversary Congress of IASS: Shell and spatial structures from recent past to the next millennium, Madrid (Espagne), Septembre 1999, pp.1-10.
1999 Published: Sylvie Wendling, Christian Oddou, Daniel Isabey, "Stiffening Response of a Cellular Tensegrity Model", in Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 196, Issue 3, 7 February 1999, Pages 309-325
1999 Published: Thomas, F., Contreras, J., Bilbao, G., Invarardi, L. and Thomas, J., “An improved technique for isolating pig islets: the importance of tensegrity in islet long-term culture viability”, Transplantation Proceedings, Vol.31, No.1-2, 3 February 1999, pp.633-634.
1999 Published: Tibert, G., Numerical Analyses of Cable Roof Structures. Unpublished Licentiate thesis. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden) Also available in http://www2.mech.kth.se/~gunnart/TibertLicThesis.pdf
1999 Published: Wendling, S., Oddou, C. and Isabey, D., “Stiffening Response of a Cellular Tensegrity Model”, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol.196, No.3, 7 February 1999, pp.309-325.
1999 Development of Design Equations for Self-deployable N-strut Tensegrity Systems Thesis by Ian P Stern.




Tensegrity Chronology, 2000's


2000 Deployable Antenna Kinematics Using Tensegrity Structure Design Dissertation By Byron Franklin Knight
2000 Published: K.Yu. Volokh, O. Vilnay, M. Belsky, "Tensegrity architecture explains linear stiffening and predicts softening of living cells, in Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 33, Issue 12, December 2000, Pages 1543-1549
2000 Published: Nabil Ben Kahla, K. Kebiche, "Nonlinear elastoplastic analysis of tensegrity systems", in Engineering Structures, Volume 22, Issue 11, November 2000, Pages 1552-1566
2000 Published: Sylvie Wendling, Christian Oddou, Daniel Isabey, "Approche structurale de la mécanique du cytosquelette: solide alvéolaire vs modèle de tenségrité", in Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIB - Mechanics-Physics-Astronomy, Volume 328, Issue 1, January 2000, Pages 97-104
2000 Published: T. Yamada, D. Richiert, S. J. Tumminia, P. Russell, "The tensegrity model applied to the lens: a hypothesis for the presence of the fiber cell ball and sockets, in Medical Hypotheses, Volume 55, Issue 1, July 2000, Pages 36-39
2000 Published: Volokh, K.Y., Vilnay O. and Belsky, M., “Tensegrity architecture explains linear stiffening and predicts softening of living cells”, Journal of Biomechanics, Vol.33, No.12, December 2000, pp.1543-1549.
2000 Published: Williamson, D. and Whitehouse, D., Visualization of Tensegrity Structures, [on-line], Australia, http://anusf.anu.edu.au/Vizlab/viz_showcase/williamson_darrell/
2000 Published: Yamada, T., Richiert, D., Tumminia, S.J. and Russell, P., “The tensegrity model applied to the lens: a hypothesis for the presence of the fiber cell ball and sockets”, Medical Hypotheses, Vol.55, No.1, July 2000, pp.36-39.
2001 Published: Stern, I. and Duffy, J., “Equations for the Design of Self-Deployable Tensegrity Prisms”, 42nd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference and Exhibit, April 2001, Seattle, WA (USA).
2001 Published: Skelton, R.E., Helton, J.W., Adhikari, R., Pinaud, J.P., Chan, W., An Introduction to the Mechanics of Tensegrity Structures. Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Orlando, Florida, December 2001.
2001 Published: Skelton, R.E., Helton, J.W., Adhikari, R., Pinaud, J.P., Chan, W., Dynamics of the shell class of tensegrity structures.The Mechanical Systems Design Handbook: Modeling, Measurement, and Control, CRC Press, 2001.
2001 Published: Skelton, R.E., Pinaud, J.P., Mingori, D.L., Dynamics of the shell class of tensegrity structures. Journal of the Franklin Institute., 338/2-3:255-320, 2001.
2001 Published: Adriaenssens, S.M.L. and Barnes, M.R., “Tensegrity spline beam and grid shell structures”, Engineering Structures, Vol. 23, No.1, 2001, pp. 29-36.
2001 Published: Cornel Sultan, Martin Corless, Robert E. Skelton, "The prestressability problem of tensegrity structures: some analytical solutions", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 38, Issues 30-31, July 2001, Pages 5223-5252
2001 Published: Daniel Ng,, Camp Elsewhere's Tensegrity Shade Structures, [online], USA: Clownland Enterprises, Inc. and Camp Elsewhere, Ltd. http://www.bweebweebwee.com/tensegrity/
2001 Published: Hidenori Murakami, "Static and dynamic analyses of tensegrity structures. Part 1. Nonlinear equations of motion", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 38, Issue 20, May 2001, Pages 3599-3613
2001 Published: Hidenori Murakami, "Static and dynamic analyses of tensegrity structures. Part II. Quasi-static analysis", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 38, Issue 20, May 2001, Pages 3615-3629
2001 Published: Hidenori Murakami, Yoshitaka Nishimura, "Initial shape finding and modal analyses of cyclic right-cylindrical tensegrity modules, in Computers & Structures, Volume 79, Issue 9, April 2001, Pages 891-917
2001 Published: Hidenori Murakami, Yoshitaka Nishimura, "Static and dynamic characterization of regular truncated icosahedral and dodecahedral tensegrity modules", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 38, Issues 50-51, December 2001, Pages 9359-9381
2001 Published: Irving J. Oppenheim, William O. Williams, "Vibration of an elastic tensegrity structure", in European Journal of Mechanics - A/Solids, Volume 20, Issue 6, November-December 2001, Pages 1023-1031
2001 Published: Literati, J.N., Towards the Ultimate Self Sustainable Society - Modelling In-Situ Resource Utilisation for a Lunar Colony, Trollhättan, (Sweden): Moon- ISRU. Also available in http://www.moon-isru.com/MoonISRU-Bsubmitted02.pdf
2001 Published: Raducanu, V. and Motro, R., Système a autoéquilibre stable pour élément de construction, demande de brevet français nº 01 04 822, déposée le 9 avril 2001 aux noms de C.N.R.S. – Ste Tissage et Enduction Serge Ferrari. Sanchez, R., Maurin, B., Kazi-Aoual, M.N., Motro, R., Modélisation des systèmes de tenségrité: Grilles à double nappe, Montpellier: Laboratoire de Mécanique et Génie Civil. Université Montpellier II. Also available in http://www.lirmm.fr/doctiss04/art/M03.pdf Tensegrity Structures and their Application to Architecture VI. Bibliography 199
2001 Published: Robert E. Skelton, Jean Paul Pinaud, D. L. Mingori, "Dynamics of the shell class of tensegrity structures", in Journal of the Franklin Institute, Volume 338, Issues 2-3, March 2001, Pages 255-320
2001 Published: S. M. L. Adriaenssens, M. R. Barnes, "Tensegrity spline beam and grid shell structures", in Engineering Structures, Volume 23, Issue 1, January 2001, Pages 29-36
2001 Published: Tibert, G. and Pellegrino, S., “Form-Finding of Tensegrity Structures—A Review”, Accepted by International Journal of Space Structures, 2001. Also availabe in http://www2.mech.kth.se/~gunnart/NSCM14.pdf
2001 Published: Wilken, T., Tensegrity. [on-line], http://www.synearth.net/TensegrityHtml/Tensegrity.html
2001 Published: Yoshitaka Nishimura, Hidenori Murakami, "Initial shape-finding and modal analyses of cyclic frustum tensegrity modules", in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Volume 190, Issues 43-44, 17 August 2001, Pages 5795-5818
2001 Talk: Skelton, R.E., Helton, J.W., Adhikari, R., Pinaud, J.P., Chan, W., An Introduction to the Mechanics of Tensegrity Structures. The Mechanical Systems Design Handbook: Modeling, Measurement, and Control, CRC Press, 2001.
2002 Patent: Austin, G.D. and Tam, L., Female condom employing tensegrity principle, U.S. Patent No. 2002/0038658 A1, April 4, 2002
2002 Published: Skelton, R.E., Williamson D., Han, J., Equilibrium Conditions of a Class I Tensegrity Structure (AAS 02-177), pp 927 – 950, Volume 112 Part II, Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, Spaceflight Mechanics 2002.
2002 Published: Cornel Sultan, Martin Corless, Robert E. Skelton, "Linear dynamics of tensegrity structures", in Engineering Structures, Volume 24, Issue 6, June 2002, Pages 671-685
2002 Published: Cornel Sultan, Martin Corless, Robert E. Skelton, "Symmetrical reconfiguration of tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 39, Issue 8, April 2002, Pages 2215-2234
2002 Published: Gengnagel, C., Arbeitsblätter "Tensegrity", Munich: Fakultät für Architektur, Technische Universität München.
2002 Published: Heller, M., “Tensegrity Models”, Dynamic Chiropractic, December 16, 2002, Vol.20, No.26. Also available in http://www.chiroweb.com/archives/20/26/07.html
2002 Published: Kanchanasaratool, N. and Williamson, D.,, "Modelling and control of class NSP tensegrity structures", International Journal of Control, Vol.75, No.2, 20 January 2002, pp.123-139.http://www.biotensegrity.com/continuous_tension_discontinuous_compression.php*
2002 Published: Knight; B.F., Duffy, J., Crane, III, C.D. and Rooney; J.,, Tensegrity Deployable antenna using screw motion-based control of tensegrity support architecture, U.S. Patent No. 6,441,801, August 27, 2002
2002 Published: Kristina Shea, Etienne Fest, Ian F. C. Smith, "Developing intelligent tensegrity structures with stochastic search", in Advanced Engineering Informatics, Volume 16, Issue 1, January 2002, Pages 21-40
2002 Published: Leonid Frantsevich, Stanislav Gorb, "Arcus as a tensegrity structure in the arolium of wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in Zoology, Volume 105, Issue 3, 2002, Pages 225-237
2002 Published: Levin, S.M., “The Tensegrity-Truss as a Model for Spine Mechanics: Biotensegrity”. Bulletin Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, Vol.2, No.3&4, pp.375-388. Also available in http://www.biotensegrity.com/paper5.html
2002 Published: Motro, R., Bernard, C., Conception en structures. Rapport d’activités 1999-2002, Montpellier: Laboratoire de Mécanique et Génie Civil. Université Montpellier II. Also available in http://www.lmgc.univmontp2.fr/ADM/05_C1CS.pdf
2002 Published: Patrick Cañadas, Valerie M. Laurent, Christian Oddou, Daniel Isabey, Sylvie Wendling, "A Cellular Tensegrity Model to Analyse the Structural Viscoelasticity of the Cytoskeleton", in Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 218, Issue 2, 21 September 2002, Pages 155-173
2002 Published: Tibert, G., Deployable Tensegrity Structures for Space Applications. Unpublished Doctoral thesis. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden) Also available in http://www2.mech.kth.se/~gunnart/TibertDocThesis.pdf
2002 Published: Weidlinger Associates, La Plata Stadium, [on-line], New York (USA) http://www.wai.com/Structures/Fabric/laplata.html
2002 Published: Zanotti, G. and Guerra, C., “Is tensegrity a unifying concept of protein folds?”, FEBS Letters, Vol.534, No.1-3, 16 January 2003, pp.7-10.
2002 Talk: Chan, W., Skelton, R.E., Equilibria and Stiffness of Planar Tensegrity Structures. AAS /AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, January 2002.
2002 Talk: De Jager, B., Masic, M., R.E. Skelton, Optimal Topology and Geometry for Controllable Tensegrity Systems, 15th IFAC World Congress, Barcelona, Spain, 2002.
2002 Talk: Masic, M., Skelton, R.E., Open-Loop Shape Control of Stable Unit Tensegrity Structures, Proceedings of 3rd Word Congress of Structural Control, Como Italy, 2002
2002 Talk: Williamson, D., Skelton, R.E., Han, J., Equilibrium Conditions of a Tensegrity Structures, Third World Conference on Structural Control (3WCSC), Como, Italy, April 7-12, 2002.
2003 Patent: Barber, G.T., Lamp composed of non-contacting compression members and tension members, U.S. Patent No. D473,676, April 22, 2003.
2003 Patent: Barber, G.T., Table composed on non-contacting compression members and tension members, U.S. Patent No. D471,741, March 18, 2003.
2003 Patent: Barber, G.T., Chair composed on non-contacting compression members and tension members, U.S. Patent No. D481,880, November 11, 2003.
2003 Published: "Is tensegrity a unifying concept of protein folds?" by Giuseppe Zanotti, Concettina Guerra, in FEBS Letters, Volume 534, Issues 1-3, 16 January 2003, Pages 7-10
2003 Published: Ingber, D.E., “Tensegrity I. Cell structure and hierarchical systems biology”. Journal of Cell Science, No.116, pp.1157-1173 Also available in http://intl-jcs.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/116/7/1157
2003 Published: Ingber, D.E., “Tensegrity II. How structural networks influence cellular information-processing networks”. Journal of Cell Science, No.116, pp.1397 -1408 Also available in http://jcs.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/116/8/1397
2003 Published: Cornel Sultan, Robert Skelton, "Deployment of tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 40, Issue 18, September 2003, Pages 4637-4657
2003 Published: Darrell Williamson, Robert E. Skelton, Jeongheon Han, "Equilibrium conditions of a tensegrity structure", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 40, Issue 23, November 2003, Pages 6347-6367
2003 Published: Han, J., Williamson, D., Skelton, R.E., Equilibrium Conditions of a Tensegrity Structures, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 40, Nov. 2003, pp. 6347-6367.
2003 Published: J. Quirant, M. N. Kazi-Aoual, R. Motro, "Designing tensegrity systems: the case of a double layer grid", in Engineering Structures, Volume 25, Issue 9, July 2003, Pages 1121-1130
2003 Published: Liapi, K.A.,, Tensegrity Unit, Structure and Method for construction, U.S. Patent No. 2003/0009974 A1, January 13, 2003
2003 Published: Marc Defossez, "Shape memory effect in tensegrity structures", in Mechanics Research Communications, Volume 30, Issue 4, July-August 2003, Pages 311-316
2003 Published: Massimiliano Lazzari, Renato V. Vitaliani, Massimo Majowiecki, Anna V. Saetta, "Dynamic behavior of a tensegrity system subjected to follower wind loading", in Computers & Structures, Volume 81, Issues 22-23, September 2003, Pages 2199-2217
2003 Published: Motro, R., Tensegrity: Structural Systems for the http://www.biotensegrity.com/continuous_tension_discontinuous_compression.php, London: Kogan Page Science.
2003 Published: René Motro, "Typologies", in Tensegrity, 2003, Pages 51-88
2003 Published: Schlaich, M., “Der Messeturm in Rostock - ein Tensegrityrekord”. Stahlbau, Vol.72, No.10, pp.697-701.
2003 Published: Smaili, A., Pliage/Dépliage de systèmes de Tensegrité. Montpellier: Laboratoire de Mécanique et Génie Civil. Université Montpellier II. Also available in http://www.lirmm.fr/doctiss04/art/M02.pdf
2003 Published: Stern, I., Deployable reflector antenna with tensegrity support architecture and associated methods, U.S. Patent No. 6,542,132, April 1, 2003.
2003 Published: Tibert, G. and Pellegrino, S., “Deployable Tensegrity Masts”, 44h AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference and Exhibit, 7-10 April 2003, Norfolk (USA). Also available in http://www2.mech.kth.se/~gunnart/AIAA-2003-1978.pdf
2003 Published: Tsu, D.V., Chao, B.S. and Jones, S.J., “Intermediate order in tetrahedrally coordinated silicon: evidence for chainlike objects”, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol.78, No.1-4, July 2003, pp.115-141.
2003 Published: Wang, B.B. and Li, Y.Y., “Novel Cable-Strut Grids made of prisms: Part I. Basic Theory and Design”. Int. Journal Space Structures, Vol.44, No.142, pp.93- 125.
2003 Published: Werta, 3delavnica, [on-line], Ljubljana (Slovenia) http://www.3delavnica.com
2003 Published: Williams, W.O., A Primer on the Mechanics of Tensegrity Structures, [online], Pittsburgh (USA) http://www.math.cmu.edu/~nw0z/publications/03-CNA-013/013bs/03-CNA-013.pdf
2003 Published: Williamson, D., Skelton, R.E., Han, J., Equilibrium Conditions for a Class I Tensegrity Structures, Revue française de génie civil, July, 2003, pp. 291-310.
2003 Sculpture: Rainbow Arch by Snelson
2003 Talk: Aldrich, J.B., Skelton, R.E., Control/Stucture Optimization Approach for Minimum-time Reconfiguration of Tensegrity Systems, Smart Structures and Materials: Modeling, Signal Processing and Control, San Diego, CA, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5049, pages 448-459.
2003 Talk: Aldrich, J.B., Skelton, R.E., Kreutz-Delgado, K., Control Synthesis for a Class of Light and Agile Robotic Tensegrity Structures, Proceedings of 2003 American Control Conference, Denver, pages 5245-5251.
2003 Talk: Pinaud, J.P., Masic, M., Skelton, R.E. Path planning for the deployment of tensegrity structures. SPIE’s 10th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, San Diego, CA, March 2003.
2004 Patent: Snelson granted patent, #6,739,937: Space Frame Structure Made by 3-D Weaving of Rod Members
2004 Published: Armstrong, R., Geodesic Domes: Untapped potential? Unpublished BArch dissertation. School of Architecture, Queen’s University Belfast.
2004 Published: Barber, G.T., Four-strut support composed of non-contacting compression members and tension members, U.S. Patent No. D487,155, February 24, 2004.
2004 Published: Búrdalo, S., “Vocación de paisaje”, Revista del Ministerio de Fomento, No.531, Jullio-Agosto 2004, pp. 100-104.
2004 Published: Cornel Sultan, Robert Skelton, "A force and torque tensegrity sensor", in Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Volume 112, Issues 2-3, 1 May 2004, Pages 220-231
2004 Published: Gordon, E.D., Physical Training, [on-line], http://ejmas.com/pt/2004t/ptart_dolan_0204.htm
2004 Published: King, J. and Lockhart, F., Great British Exhibitions, [on-line], http://members.fortunecity.com/gbex/skylon2.html
2004 Published: Marc Defossez, "Mechanical response of a tensegrity structure close to its integrity limit submitted to external constraints, in Mechanics Research Communications, Volume 31, Issue 5, September-October 2004, Pages 569-575
2004 Published: Schlaich, M., “The Messeturm in Rostock– A Tensegrity Tower”, Journal of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures: IASS, in press.
2004 Published: Ucsd Flow Control Lab, Turbulent flow / tensegrity fabric interaction, [on-line], San Diego (USA), http://turbulence.ucsd.edu/gallery/tensegrity.html
2004 Talk: Chan, W., Arbelaez, D., Bossens, F., Skleton, R.E., Active vibration control of a three-stage tensegrity structure. SPIE 11th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, San Diego, California, USA, March 2004.
2004 Talk: Masic, M., Skelton, R.E., 3 presentations regarding Class-2 Tensegrity Towers. SPIE’s 11th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, San Diego, CA, March 2004.
2005 Patent, Richard Webster and John Mann, Tent and Support System for Same -- describes tent that uses
continuous tension and discontinuous compression, US Patent No 6,877,521 April 12, 2005
2005 Published: Dimitrije Stamenović, "Effects of cytoskeletal prestress on cell rheological behavior", in Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 1, Issue 3, May 2005, Pages 255-262
2005 Published: Feng Fu, "Structural behavior and design methods of Tensegrity domes", in Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 61, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages 23-35
2005 Published: K.A. Lazopoulos, "Stability of an elastic cytoskeletal tensegrity model", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 42, Issues 11-12, June 2005, Pages 3459-3469
2005 Published: Milenko Masic, Robert E. Skelton, Philip E. Gill, "Algebraic tensegrity form-finding", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 42, Issues 16-17, August 2005, Pages 4833-4858
2005 Talk: Chen Zhihua, Shi Jie, "Theoretical analysis and experimental study on tensegrity system", in Fourth International Conference on Advances in Steel Structures, 2005, Pages 435-440
2005 Talk: Dr. Donald Ingber, "The Relevance of Tensegrity Architecture for Biology and Medicine", Synergetics Collaborative Fall 2005 Symposium on "Synergetics in the Arts" at the Noguchi Museum.
2005 Talk: Paul C., Lipson H., Valero Cuevas F. J., , "Design of Tensegrity Robots for Fault Tolerant Locomotion" Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Advanced Robotics (ICAR), Seattle, Washington, USA, July 18th-20th
2006 Published: "Numerical form-finding of tensegrity structures" by G. Gomez Estrada, H.-J. Bungartz, C. Mohrdieck, in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 43, Issues 22-23, November 2006, Pages 6855-6868
2006 Published: , "Tensegrity", in Osteopathy, 2006, Pages 71-81
2006 Published: Bram de Jager, Robert E. Skelton, "Stiffness of planar tensegrity truss topologies", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 43, Issue 5, March 2006, Pages 1308-1330
2006 Published: Dimitrije Stamenović, Ning Wang, Donald E. Ingber, "Cellular tensegrity models and cell-substrate interactions, in Principles of Cellular Engineering, 2006, Pages 81-101
2006 Published: Haïmad Baudriller, Bernard Maurin, Patrick Cañadas, Philippe Montcourrier, Andrea Parmeggiani, Nadir Bettache, "Form-finding of complex tensegrity structures: application to cell cytoskeleton modelling, in Comptes Rendus Mécanique, Volume 334, Issue 11, November 2006, Pages 662-668
2006 Published: J. Bursa, R. Lebis, "Tensegrity FE models of mechanical tests of individual cells", in Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 39, Supplement 1, 2006, Page S325
2006 Published: J.Y. Zhang, M. Ohsaki, "Adaptive force density method for form-finding problem of tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 43, Issues 18-19, September 2006, Pages 5658-5673
2006 Published: J.Y. Zhang, M. Ohsaki, Y. Kanno, "A direct approach to design of geometry and forces of tensegrity systems", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 43, Issues 7-8, April 2006, Pages 2260-2278
2006 Published: Marc Arsenault, Clément M. Gosselin, "Kinematic, static and dynamic analysis of a planar 2-DOF tensegrity mechanism", in Mechanism and Machine Theory, Volume 41, Issue 9, September 2006, Pages 1072-1089
2006 Published: Milenko Masic, Robert E. Skelton, "Selection of prestress for optimal dynamic/control performance of tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 43, Issues 7-8, April 2006, Pages 2110-2125
2006 Published: Milenko Masic, Robert E. Skelton, Philip E. Gill, "Optimization of tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 43, Issue 16, August 2006, Pages 4687-4703
2006 Published: P. Cañadas, S. Wendling-Mansuy, D. Isabey, "Structural contribution of the cytoskeleton to the dynamic response of" adherent cells assessed by a viscoelastic tensegrity model, in Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 39, Supplement 1, 2006, Page S602
2006 Published: R. Skelton, M. de Oliveira, C. Vera, L.A. Sung, "Nano-mechanics of a tensegrity network for the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, in Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 39, Supplement 1, 2006, Page S331
2007 Paper: Active control of tensegrity structures under random excitation by M. Ganesh Raja and S. Narayanan, Smart Materials and Structures vol. 16 no. 3
2007 Published: J.N. Maina, "Spectacularly robust! Tensegrity principle explains the mechanical strength of the avian lung, in Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 155, Issue 1, 15 January 2007, Pages 1-10
2007 Published: J.Y. Zhang, M. Ohsaki, "Stability conditions for tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 44, Issues 11-12, 1 June 2007, Pages 3875-3886
2007 Published: M. Schenk, S.D. Guest, J.L. Herder, "Zero stiffness tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 44, Issue 20, 1 October 2007, Pages 6569-6583
2007 Published: Shéhérazade Nineb, Pierre Alart, David Dureisseix, "Domain decomposition approach for non-smooth discrete problems, example of a tensegrity structure, in Computers & Structures, Volume 85, Issue 9, May 2007, Pages 499-511
2007 Published: Østen Jensen, Anders Sunde Wroldsen, Pål Furset Lader, Arne Fredheim, Mats Heide, "Finite element analysis of tensegrity structures in offshore aquaculture installations, in Aquacultural Engineering, Volume 36, Issue 3, May 2007, Pages 272-284
2007 Workshop: Tensegrity Workshop, Les Moutons Matheux -- Centre de Recherche du Larzac Méridional, La Vacquerie et Saint Martin de Castries, France, sponsored by Centre d'Analyse et de Mathématique Sociales/Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (CAMS/EHESS), Paris, July 9, 2007 to July 13, 2007
2008 Conference: 25 nov 08, “Tensegridad, Estructuras de Compresión Flotante”, Ponencia en el IV Congreso Internacional de Estructuras (Valencia), de la Asociación Científico-Técnica del Hormigón Estructural, by Valen Gómez-Jáuregui.
2008 Published: Bernard Adam, Ian F.C. Smith, "Active tensegrity: A control framework for an adaptive civil-engineering structure", in Computers & Structures, Volume 86, Issues 23-24, December 2008, Pages 2215-2223
2008 Published: Christopher S. Chen, Donald E. Ingber, "Tensegrity und Mechanoregulation: Vom Skelett zum Zytoskelett", in Osteopathische Medizin, Zeitschrift für ganzheitliche Heilverfahren, Volume 9, Issue 4, November 2008, Pages 4-5, 6-7, 8-11, 12-17
2008 Published: Donald E. Ingber, "Tensegrity and mechanotransduction", in Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 12, Issue 3, July 2008, Pages 198-200
2008 Published: Donald E. Ingber, "Tensegrity-based mechanosensing from macro to micro", in Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Volume 97, Issues 2-3, June-July 2008, Pages 163-179
2008 Published: Graham Scarr, "A model of the cranial vault as a tensegrity structure, and its significance to normal and abnormal" cranial development, in International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, Volume 11, Issue 3, September 2008, Pages 80-89
2008 Published: Jean François Dubé, Nicolas Angellier, Bernard Crosnier, "Comparison between experimental tests and numerical simulations carried out on a tensegrity minigrid, in Engineering Structures, Volume 30, Issue 7, July 2008, Pages 1905-1912
2008 Published: Offer Shai, Uri Ben Hanan, Yefim Mor, Michael Slovotin, Leon Ginzburg, Avner Bronfeld, Itay Tehori. Deployable Tensegrity Robots. ICR (Israeli Conference on Robotics), November 26-27 2008, Herzelia, Israel.
2008 Published: Paulo Gustavo von Krüger, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues, Luis Eustáquio Moreira, Edgar Vladimiro Mantilla Carrasco, Marcelo Greco, "Mechanical behavior of a tensegrity dome", in Mechanics Research Communications, Volume 35, Issue 7, October 2008, Pages 460-465
2008 Published: Sergi Hernàndez Juan, Josep M. Mirats Tur, "Tensegrity frameworks: Static analysis review", in Mechanism and Machine Theory, Volume 43, Issue 7, July 2008, Pages 859-881
2008 Published: Verena Eichhorn, in Osteopathische Medizin, Zeitschrift für ganzheitliche Heilverfahren, Volume 9, Issue 4, November 2008, Page 27
2008 Published: Yaozhi Luo, Xian Xu, Tanmay Lele, Sanjay Kumar, Donald E. Ingber, "A multi-modular tensegrity model of an actin stress fiber", in Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 41, Issue 11, 7 August 2008, Pages 2379-2387
2008 Research: Avner Bronfeld: Control of type 1 tensegrity structure, Mechanics Engineering, Tel Aviv University (TAU)
2009 Conference: 26 jun 09, “Principios biomecánicos de la Tensegridad en Anatomía”. Conferencia en el VI Congreso de Enfermería de da Actividad Física y el Deporte, Santander, 2009, by Valen Gómez-Jáuregui.
2009 Conference: 28 sep 09, “Controversial Origins of Tensegrity”, Conferencia en el IASS Symposium 2009, Valencia, by Valen Gómez-Jáuregui.
2009 Published: "Pre-stressed Tensegrity Structures built from DNA" by Tim Liedl, Donald E. Ingber, William M. Shih, in Biophysical Journal, Volume 96, Issue 3, Supplement 1, February 2009, Page 20a
2009 Published: Offer S., Tehori I., Bronfeld A., Slavutin M., Ben-Hanan U., Adjustable Tensegrity Robot Based on Assur Graph Principle, to appear in the proceedings of International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition IMECE 2009, Florida, November 2009.
2009 Published: Albert Graells Rovira, Josep M. Mirats Tur, "Control and simulation of a tensegrity-based mobile robot", in Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Volume 57, Issue 5, 31 May 2009, Pages 526-535
2009 Published: C. Sultan, "Chapter 2 Tensegrity: 60 Years of Art, Science, and Engineering", in Advances in Applied Mechanics, Volume 43, 2009, Pages 69-145
2009 Published: Carsten Pflüger, "Leserbrief zum Artikel „Tensegrity und Mechanoregulation: Vom Skelett zum Zytoskelett”", in Osteopathische Medizin, Zeitschrift für ganzheitliche Heilverfahren, Volume 10, Issue 1, 18 February 2009, Page 39
2009 Published: Claus-Heinrich Siemsen, Heimbert Dittrich, "Kräfteverteilungen im Körper des Menschen am Beispiel von Gewichthebern – Tensegrity als Erklärungsmodell", in Osteopathische Medizin, Zeitschrift für ganzheitliche Heilverfahren, Volume 10, Issue 3, 1 September 2009, Pages 14-18
2009 Published: Cornel Sultan, "Designing structures for dynamical properties via natural frequencies separation: Application" to tensegrity structures design, in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Volume 23, Issue 4, May 2009, Pages 1112-1122
2009 Published: J.Y. Zhang, S.D. Guest, M. Ohsaki, "Symmetric prismatic tensegrity structures. Part II: Symmetry-adapted formulations", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 46, Issue 1, 1 January 2009, Pages 15-30
2009 Published: J.Y. Zhang, S.D. Guest, M. Ohsaki, "Symmetric prismatic tensegrity structures: Part I. Configuration and stability", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 46, Issue 1, 1 January 2009, Pages 1-14
2009 Published: John Rieffel, Francisco Valero-Cuevas, Hod Lipson, "Automated discovery and optimization of large irregular tensegrity structures", in Computers & Structures, Volume 87, Issues 5-6, March 2009, Pages 368-379
2009 Published: Josep M. Mirats Tur, Sergi Hernàndez Juan, "Tensegrity frameworks: Dynamic analysis review and open problems", in Mechanism and Machine Theory, Volume 44, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 1-18
2009 Published: K.W. Moored, H. Bart-Smith, "Investigation of clustered actuation in tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 46, Issue 17, 15 August 2009, Pages 3272-3281
2009 Published: Krzysztof Kassolik, Anna Jaskólska, Katarzyna Kisiel-Sajewicz, Jarosław Marusiak, Adam Kawczyński, Artur Jaskólski, "Tensegrity principle in massage demonstrated by electro- and mechanomyography", in Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 13, Issue 2, April 2009, Pages 164-170
2009 Published: M. Pagitz, J.M. Mirats Tur, "Finite element based form-finding algorithm for tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 46, Issue 17, 15 August 2009, Pages 3235-3240
2009 Published: Marc Arsenault, Clément M. Gosselin, "Kinematic and static analysis of a 3-PUPS spatial tensegrity mechanism", in Mechanism and Machine Theory, Volume 44, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 162-179
2009 Published: Tibor Jordán, András Recski, Zoltán Szabadka, "Rigid tensegrity labelings of graphs", in European Journal of Combinatorics, Volume 30, Issue 8, November 2009, Pages 1887-1895
2009 Research: Omer Orki: Control of chain of tow dimensional tensegrity structures, Mechanics Engineering, Tel Aviv University (TAU)
2009 Simultaneous Optimization of Structure and Control of Smart Tensegrity Structures,Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures January 2009 vol. 20 no. 1 109-117



Tensegrity Chronology, 2010's


2010


2010 Kurilpa Bridge opens in Queensland, Australia
2010 Published: András Recski, Offer Shai, "Tensegrity frameworks in one-dimensional space", in European Journal of Combinatorics, Volume 31, Issue 4, May 2010, Pages 1072-1079
2010 Published: Athanassios P. Pirentis, Konstantinos A. Lazopoulos, "On the singularities of a constrained (incompressible-like) tensegrity-cytoskeleton model under equitriaxial loading, in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 47, Issue 6, 15 March 2010, Pages 759-767
2010 Published: Daniel Lobo, Francisco J. Vico, "Evolutionary development of tensegrity structures", in Biosystems, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 7 July 2010
2010 Published: Hoang Chi Tran, Jaehong Lee, "Advanced form-finding of tensegrity structures", in Computers & Structures, Volume 88, Issues 3-4, February 2010, Pages 237-246
2010 Published: Hoang Chi Tran, Jaehong Lee, "Initial self-stress design of tensegrity grid structures", in Computers & Structures, Volume 88, Issues 9-10, May 2010, Pages 558-566
2010 Published: Hoang Chi Tran, Jaehong Lee, "Self-stress design of tensegrity grid structures with exostresses", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 47, Issue 20, 1 October 2010, Pages 2660-2671
2010 Published: J.Y. Zhang, S.D. Guest, R. Connelly, M. Ohsaki, "Dihedral ‘star’ tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 47, Issue 1, 1 January 2010, Pages 1-9
2010 Published: Landolf Rhode-Barbarigos, Nizar Bel Hadj Ali, René Motro, Ian F.C. Smith, "Designing tensegrity modules for pedestrian bridges", in Engineering Structures, Volume 32, Issue 4, April 2010, Pages 1158-1167
2010 Published: Massimo Cefalo, J.M. Mirats Tur, "Real-time self-collision detection algorithms for tensegrity systems", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 47, Issue 13, 15 June 2010, Pages 1711-1722
2010 Published: N. Bel Hadj Ali, I.F.C. Smith, "Dynamic behavior and vibration control of a tensegrity structure", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 47, Issue 9, 1 May 2010, Pages 1285-1296
2010 Published: Robert E. Skelton, Maurício C. de Oliveira, "Optimal tensegrity structures in bending: The discrete Michell truss", in Journal of the Franklin Institute, Volume 347, Issue 1, February 2010, Pages 257-283
2010 Published: Shintaro Ehara, Yoshihiro Kanno, "Topology design of tensegrity structures via mixed integer programming", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 47, Issue 5, 1 March 2010, Pages 571-579
2010 Published: Yue Li, Xi-Qiao Feng, Yan-Ping Cao, Huajian Gao, "A Monte Carlo form-finding method for large scale regular and irregular tensegrity structures", in International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 47, Issues 14-15, July 2010, Pages 1888-1898

2011


2011 Published: Ali, NBH, Rhode-Barbarigos, L, Smith, IFC '"Analysis of clustered tensegrity structures using a modified dynamic relaxation algorithm", in International Journal Of Solids And Structures, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 637-647, doi 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2010.10.029
2011 Published: Arsenault M, '"Stiffness analysis of a 2dof planar tensegrity mechanism", in Journal Of Mechanisms And Robotics, Volume 3, Issue 2, doi 10.1115/1.4003849
2011 Published: Bel Hadj Ali N., Rhode-Barbarigos L., Smith I.F.C, '"Analysis of clustered tensegrity structures using a modified dynamic relaxation algorithm", in International Journal Of Solids And Structures, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 637-647, doi 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2010.10.029
2011 Published: Cefalo, M, Mirats-Tur, JM '"A comprehensive dynamic model for class-1 tensegrity systems based on quaternions", in International Journal Of Solids And Structures, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 785-802, doi 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2010.11.015
2011 Published: Chalon M., Friedl W., Reinecke J., Wimboeck T., Albu-Schaeffer A, '"Impedance control of a non-linearly coupled tendon driven thumb", in Ieee International Conference On Intelligent Robots And Systems, Pages 4215-4221, doi 10.1109/IROS.2011.6048218
2011 Published: Cretu S.-M, '"Innovative design in tensegrity field", in Procedia Engineering, Volume 9, Pages 261-269, doi 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.03.117
2011 Published: Descamps, B, Coelho, RF, Ney, L, Bouillard, P '"Multicriteria optimization of lightweight bridge structures with a constrained force density method", in Computers & Structures, Volume 89, Issue ---, Pages 277-284, doi 10.1016/j.compstruc.2010.11.010
2011 Published: Fazli, N, Abedian, A '"Design of tensegrity structures for supporting deployable mesh antennas", in Scientia Iranica, Volume 18, Issue 5, Pages 1078-1087, doi 10.1016/j.scient.2011.08.006
2011 Published: Gordon R., Levin S.M., Gebeshuber I.C, '"Triggered, nanostructured biodegradables (TNBs) for surgical implants", in Micro And Nanosystems, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 284-289, doi 10.2174/1876402911103040284
2011 Published: Guest, SD '"The stiffness of tensegrity structures", in Ima Journal Of Applied Mathematics, Volume 76, Issue 1, Pages 57-66, doi 10.1093/imamat/hxq065
2011 Published: Guest, SD, Kebadze, E, Pellegrino, S '"A Zero-stiffness Elastic Shell Structure", in Journal Of Mechanics Of Materials And Structures, Volume 6, Issue ---, Pages 203-212
2011 Published: Guo J.-M., Dong S.-L., Yuan X.-F, '"Model designing and experimental research of suspen-dome structure", in Gongcheng Lixue/Engineering Mechanics, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 157-164
2011 Published: Ji, BH, Bao, G '"Cell And Molecular Biomechanics: Perspectives And Challenges", in Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 27-51
2011 Published: Kanno Y, '"Topology optimization of tensegrity structures under compliance constraint: a mixed integer linear programming approach", in Optimization And Engineering, Pages 1-36, doi 10.1007/s11081-011-9172-0
2011 Published: Kollmannsberger, P, Fabry, B '"Linear and Nonlinear Rheology of Living Cells", in Annual Review Of Materials Research, Vol 41, Volume 41, Pages 75-97, doi 10.1146/annurev-matsci-062910-100351
2011 Published: Koohestani K, '"Form-finding of tensegrity structures via genetic algorithm", in International Journal Of Solids And Structures, doi 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2011.11.015
2011 Published: Korkmaz S., Bel Hadj Ali N., Smith I.F.C, '"Determining control strategies for damage tolerance of an active tensegrity structure", in Engineering Structures, Volume 33, Issue 6, Pages 1930-1939, doi 10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.02.031
2011 Published: Korkmaz, S '"A review of active structural control: challenges for engineering informatics", in Computers & Structures, Volume 89, Issue 23-24, Pages 2113-2132, doi 10.1016/j.compstruc.2011.07.010
2011 Published: Sinan Korkmaz et al. “Configuration of Control System for Damage Tolerance of a Tensegrity Bridge”, Advanced Engineering Informatics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2011.10.002
2011 Published: Li Q., Skelton R.E., Yan J, '"Integrating mass and control energy optimization for tensegrity structure", in Proceedings Of The 2nd International Conference On Intelligent Control And Information Processing, Icicip 2011, Issue PART 2, Pages 654-659, doi 10.1109/ICICIP.2011.6008331
2011 Published: Li Q., Skelton R.E., Yan J, '"Energy optimization of deployable tensegrity structure", in Proceedings Of The 30th Chinese Control Conference, Ccc 2011, Pages 2146-2151
2011 Published: Li T., Ma Y, '"Robust vibration control of flexible tensegrity structure via μ synthesis", in Structural Control And Health Monitoring, doi 10.1002/stc.482
2011 Published: Li, Kn, Huang, DH '"Static behavior of Kiewitt6 suspendome", in Structural Engineering And Mechanics, Volume 37, Issue 3, Pages 309-320
2011 Published: Lu, Jy, Li, N '"Motion Analysis of Kinematically Indeterminate Structure Using Inextensional Mechanism: a Unified Approach", in Advances In Structures, Pts 1-5, Volume 163-167, Pages 804-807, doi 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.163-167.804
2011 Published: Maceri, F, Marino, M, Vairo, G '"Convex analysis and ideal tensegrities", in Comptes Rendus Mecanique, Volume 339, Issue 11, Pages 683-691, doi 10.1016/j.crme.2011.07.009
2011 Published: McCarthy J.M, '"21st century kinematics: Synthesis, compliance, and tensegrity", in Journal Of Mechanisms And Robotics, Volume 3, Issue 2, doi 10.1115/1.4003181
2011 Published: Mirats-Tur J.M., Camps J, '"A three-DoF actuated robot", in Ieee Robotics And Automation Magazine, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 96-103, doi 10.1109/MRA.2011.940991
2011 Published: Moored K.W., Kemp T.H., Houle N.E., Bart-Smith H, '"Analytical predictions, optimization, and design of a tensegrity-based artificial pectoral fin", in International Journal Of Solids And Structures, Volume 48, Issue 22-23, Pages 3142-3159, doi 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2011.07.008
2011 Published: Morrison, G, Hyeon, C, Hinczewski, M, Thirumalai, D '"Compaction and Tensile Forces Determine the Accuracy of Folding Landscape Parameters from Single Molecule Pulling Experiments", in Physical Review Letters, Volume 106, Issue 13, doi 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.138102
2011 Published: Motro, R '"Structural morphology of tensegrity systems", in Meccanica, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 27-40, doi 10.1007/s11012-010-9379-8
2011 Published: Nackenhorst U., Kardas D., Helmich T., Lenz C., Shan W, '"Computational techniques for multiscale analysis of materials and interfaces", in Lecture Notes In Applied And Computational Mechanics, Volume 57, Pages 133-167, doi 10.1007/978-3-642-20490-6-5
2011 Published: Nguyen, AD, Quirant, J, Cevaer, F, Dube, JF '"Study and construction of a pentagon-based tensegrity ring", in European Journal Of Environmental And Civil Engineering, Volume 15, Issue 6, Pages 849-868, doi 10.3166/EJECE.15.849-868
2011 Published: Nuhoglu, A, Korkmaz, KA '"A practical approach for nonlinear analysis of tensegrity systems", in Engineering With Computers, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 337-345, doi 10.1007/s00366-010-0203-9
2011 Published: Oliveto, ND, Sivaselvan, MV '"Dynamic analysis of tensegrity structures using a complementarity framework", in Computers & Structures, Volume 89, Issue 23-24, Pages 2471-2483, doi 10.1016/j.compstruc.2011.06.003
2011 Published: Pena D.M., Llorens I., Sastre R., Crespo D., Martinez J, '"Application of tensegrity to tensile-textile constructions: Formfinding and structural analysis", in Journal Of The International Association For Shell And Spatial Structures, Volume 52, Issue 168, Pages 67-81
2011 Published: Ren W., Kline W.M., McMullan P.J., Griffin A.C, '"Thermal strain recovery of anelastic monodomain liquid crystalline networks: Mechanically induced strains ratios", in Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research, Volume 248, Issue 1, Pages 105-110, doi 10.1002/pssb.201083972
2011 Published: Rezaiee-Pajand, M, Sarafrazi, SR '"Nonlinear dynamic structural analysis using dynamic relaxation with zero damping", in Computers & Structures, Volume 89, Issue 13-14, Pages 1274-1285, doi 10.1016/j.compstruc.2011.04.005
2011 Published: Rodrguez R.F., Salinas-Rodrguez E., Maldonado A., Hernndez-Zapata E., Cocho G, '"Criticality and supradiffusion in biological membranes: The effect of transverse multiplicative fluctuations", in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics And Its Applications, Volume 390, Issue 6, Pages 1198-1208, doi 10.1016/j.physa.2010.11.022
2011 Published: Shekastehband B., Abedi K., Chenaghlou M.R, '"Sensitivity analysis of tensegrity systems due to member loss", in Journal Of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 67, Issue 9, Pages 1325-1340, doi 10.1016/j.jcsr.2011.03.009
2011 Published: Shi T., Lu J., Yao L., Du Y, '"On a type of single-curved cable-strut grids generated by semi-regular tensegrity", in Applied Mechanics And Materials, Volume 66-68, Pages 1781-1785, doi 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.66-68.1781
2011 Published: Simona-Mariana, C, Gabriela-Catalina, B '"Tensegrity applied to modelling the motion of viruses", in Acta Mechanica Sinica, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 125-129, doi 10.1007/s10409-011-0402-7
2011 Published: Tibert A.G., Pellegrino S, '"Review of form-finding methods for tensegrity structures", in International Journal Of Space Structures, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 241-255, doi 10.1260/0266-3511.26.3.241
2011 Published: Tran H.C., Lee J, '"Form-finding of tensegrity structures using double singular value decomposition", in Engineering With Computers, Pages 1-16, doi 10.1007/s00366-011-0245-7
2011 Published: Tran, HC, Lee, J '"Geometric and material nonlinear analysis of tensegrity structures", in Acta Mechanica Sinica, Volume 27, Issue 6, Pages 938-949, doi 10.1007/s10409-011-0520-2
2011 Published: Tran, HC, Lee, J '"Determination of a unique configuration of free-form tensegrity structures", in Acta Mechanica, Volume 220, Issue ---, Pages 331-348, doi 10.1007/s00707-011-0479-x
2011 Published: Valipour M., Sadeghi A, '"Investigation on the effects of depth-to-span ratio of tensegrity flat grids on their seismic behavior", in International Journal Of Space Structures, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 59-69, doi 10.1260/0266-3511.26.1.59
2011 Published: Vernerey, FJ, Farsad, M '"An Eulerian/XFEM formulation for the large deformation of cortical cell membrane", in Computer Methods In Biomechanics And Biomedical Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 5, Pages 433-445, doi 10.1080/10255842.2010.531273
2011 Published: Xi Y., Xi Z., Qin W.H, '"Form-finding of cable domes by simplified force density method", in Proceedings Of The Institution Of Civil Engineers: Structures And Buildings, Volume 164, Issue 3, Pages 181-195, doi 10.1680/stbu.9.00066
2011 Published: Xiao N., Zhang H.-J, '"Path stability analysis on shape adjustments for adaptive cable domes", in 2011 2nd International Conference On Mechanic Automation And Control Engineering, Mace 2011 - Proceedings, Pages 6661-6664, doi 10.1109/MACE.2011.5988573
2011 Published: Xu X., Luo Y, '"Multistable tensegrity structures", in Journal Of Structural Engineering, Volume 137, Issue 1, Pages 117-123, doi 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000281
2011 Published: Xu X., Yu Y., Luo Y.Z., Shen Y.B, '"Tensegrity form-finding using finite particle method", in Advanced Materials Research, Volume 201-203, Pages 1166-1169, doi 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.201-203.1166
2011 Published: Yamamoto M., Gan B.S., Fujita K., Kurokawa J, '"A genetic algorithm based form-finding for tensegrity structure", in Procedia Engineering, Volume 14, Pages 2949-2956, doi 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.07.371
2011 Published: Zhang X., Yuan X., Li L, '"Structural system and conceptual model test of solar chimney", in Advanced Materials Research, Volume 168-170, Pages 1601-1610, doi 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.168-170.1601
2011 Published: Zhao, J. S., Wang, JY, Chu, FL, Feng, ZJ, Dai, JS '"Structure synthesis and statics analysis of a foldable stair", in Mechanism And Machine Theory, Volume 46, Issue 7, Pages 998-1015, doi 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2011.02.001
2011 Published: Zhou Y.Y., Li J., Frumar J.A., Ren G, '"Instant built tensegrity structures with 3D compression members", in Advanced Materials Research, Volume 243-249, Pages 5894-5898, doi 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.243-249.5894
2011 Published: Zhou, XZ, Shen, H, Wu, HA '"Bio-optimum prestress in actin filaments with a polygonal cytoskeleton model", in Archive Of Applied Mechanics, Volume 81, Issue 11, Pages 1651-1658, doi 10.1007/s00419-011-0508-1


2012 DRAFT


2012 Published: 11-csme-74-kinematic Analysis Of A Translational 3-dof Tensegrity Mechanism by CA Mohr, M Arsenault - Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical …, 2012
2012 Published: A consideration of the elbow as a tensegrity structure by G Scarr - International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 2012 - Elsevier
2012 Published: A convex analysis approach to mechanics of tensegrity structures by F Maceri, M Marino, G Vairo - lml.univ-lille1.fr
2012 Published: A finite element for form-finding and static analysis of tensegrity structures by D Gasparini, KK Klinka, VF Arcaro - Journal of Mechanics of Materials and …, 2012 - msp.org
2012 Published: A Form-finding of Planar Tensegrity Structures by SJ LEE - ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH, 2012 - dbpia.co.kr
2012 Published: A Model of Caterpillar Locomotion Based on Assur Tensegrity Structres by O Orki - 2012 - eng.tau.ac.il
2012 Published: A transformable tensegrity-ring footbridge by L. Rhode-Barbarigos, R. Motro and I.F.C. Smith. IASS-APCS 2012, Seould, Korea, 2012.
2012 Published: Abstract Tensegrity frameworks are defined on a set of points in R d and consist of bars, by cables, and struts, which provide upper and/or lower bounds for the distance between their
2012 Published: An Active Deployable Tensegrity Structure by Landolf-Giosef-Anastasios Rhode-Barbarigos
2012 Published: An approach to locomotion systems based on 3D tensegrity structures with a minimal number of struts by V Böhm, A Jentzsch, T Kaufhold… - … of ROBOTIK 2012; …, 2012 - ieeexplore.ieee.org
2012 Published: Analytical Computation of the Actuator and Cartesian Workspace Boundaries for a Planar 2-Degree-of-Freedom Translational Tensegrity Mechanism by S Chen, M Arsenault - link.aip.org
2012 Published: Anatomical Illustration of Tensegrity and Dynamic Stability of the DRUJ by E Hagert - Journal of Wrist Surgery, 2012 - thieme-connect.com
2012 Published: Aplicación de los principios del tensegrity a las constucciones textiles atirantadas. by P Viñamil, D Maritza - tdx.cesca.cat
2012 Published: Badanie Wstępnie Sprężonych Modeli Komórek Przy Użyciu Analizy Wrażliwości A Survey Of Tensegrity Models Of Cells by E POSTEK - fluid.ippt.gov.pl
2012 Published: Behavior of a Double Layer Tensegrity Grid under Static Loading: Identification of Self-Stress Level by N Angellier, JF Dubé, J Quirant… - Journal of Structural …, 2012 - ascelibrary.org
2012 Published: Choreographic and somatic strategies for navigating bodyscapes and tensegrity schemata by S Hawksley - Journal of Dance and Somatic Practices, 2012 - ingentaconnect.com
2012 Published: Comments on the Paper:" Debunking" Tensegrity"-A Personal Perspective" by Ariel Hanaor by L Rhode-Barbarigos - International Journal of Space Structures, 2012 - Multi-Science
2012 Published: Configuration of control system for damage tolerance of a tensegrity bridge by S Korkmaz, NBH Ali, IFC Smith - Advanced Engineering Informatics- Elsevier
2012 Published: Damage assessment of tensegrity structures using piezo transducers by S Bhalla, R Panigrahi, A Gupta - Meccanica- Springer
2012 Published: Debunking" Tensegrity"-A Personal Perspective by A Hanaor - International Journal of Space Structures- Multi-Science
2012 Published: Design and analysis of tensegrity power lines by S Dalilsafaei, G Tibert - International Journal of Space Structures- Multi-Science
2012 Published: Design aspects of a deployable tensegrity-hollow-rope footbridge by L. Rhode-Barbarigos, N. Bel Hadj Ali, R. Motro and I.F.C. Smith, in International Journal of Space Structures, vol. 27, num. 2, p. 81−96, 2012.
2012 Published: Design, Analysis and Self Stress Setting of a Lightweight Deployable Tensegrity Modular Structure by J Averseng, JF Dubé - Procedia Engineering- Elsevier
2012 Published: Designing an Irregular Tensegrity as a Monumental Object by BS Gan - Proceedings of World Academy of …- World Academy of Science, …
2012 Published: Distributed vibration control of tensegrity structure by T Li, Z Wang, J Li, Y Ma - Journal of Vibration and Control- jvc.sagepub.com
2012 Published: Double Layer Tensegrity Grids by T Olejnikova - Acta Polytechnica Hungarica- uni-obuda.hu
2012 Published: Double-layer tensegrity grids and Rot-Umbela manipulations by V Gómez-Jáuregui - Informes de la Construccion-Revista, 2012
2012 Published: Dynamic Simulation of Six-strut Tensegrity Robot Rolling by S Hirai, R Imuta
2012 Published: Experimental and numerical studies on the collapse behavior of tensegrity systems considering cable rupture and strut collapse with snap-through by B Shekastehband, K Abedi, N Dianat… - International Journal of …- Elsevier
2012 Published: Experimental validation of robust resonance entrainment for CPG-controlled tensegrity structures by T Bliss, J Werly, T Iwasaki, H Bart-Smith - ieeexplore.ieee.org
2012 Published: Form-finding of tensegrity structures via genetic algorithm by K Koohestani - International Journal of Solids and Structures- Elsevier
2012 Published: Formfinding and structures analysis of a tensegrity dome by D Peña, JI Llorens Duran, R Sastre Sastre - upcommons.upc.edu
2012 Published: Genetically Finding Algorithm for a Tensegrity Structure by BS Gan, M Yamamoto - Advanced Materials Research- Trans Tech Publ
2012 Published: Improving bending stiffness of tensegrity booms by S. Dalilsafaei, A. Eriksson and G. Tibert, in International Journal of Space Structures, vol. 27, num. 2, p. 117−129, 2012.
2012 Published: Initial Prestress Distribution And Natural Vibration Analysis Of Tensegrity Structures Based On Group Theory by Y Chen, J Feng - International Journal of Structural Stability and …- World Scientific
2012 Published: Initial Prestress Optimization of Tensegrity Structures Based on Fish-Swarm Algorithm by CQ Liu, R Liang, WX Shi - Advanced Materials Research- Trans Tech Publ
2012 Published: Innovative Families of Double-Layer Tensegrity Grids: Quastruts and Sixstruts by V Gomez-Jauregui, C Otero, R Arias… - Journal of Structural …- ascelibrary.org
2012 Published: Interactive Dynamic Design and Analysis of Tensegrity Systems by J Averseng, J Quirant, JF Dubé - International Journal of Space …- Multi-Science
2012 Published: Investigation of a double-layer tensegrity glazing system by SM Ioannis, D Simon, S NHAMOINESU, M OVEREND - www-g.eng.cam.ac.uk
2012 Published: Kinematic Analysis of a Planar Tensegrity Mechanism for Wave Energy Harvesting by RE Vasquez, CD Crane III, JC Correa - Latest Advances in Robot …- Springer
2012 Published: Kinematic and Static Analyses of Statically Balanced Spatial Tensegrity Mechanism with Active Compliant Components by SMM Shekarforoush, M Eghtesad, M Farid - Journal of Intelligent & …- Springer
2012 Published: Linear Analytical Solution of an Active Tensegrity Unit by S Kmet, P Platko - Procedia Engineering- Elsevier
2012 Published: Linear Closed-form Solution and Finite-element Analysis of an Active Tensegrity Unit by S Kmeť, P Platko - degruyter.com
2012 Published: Lávka Pro Pěší A Cyklisty Konstruovaná Na Bázi Tensegrity Systému by A Slabá - dspace.cvut.cz
2012 Published: Mechanical Behaviour in Axial Compression of a Tensegrity Ring: Parametric Study and Rheological Model by C Franck, Q Jérôme, D Jean-François - International Journal of Space …- Multi-Science
2012 Published: Mechanism-Based Approach for the Deployment of a Tensegrity-Ring Module by L. Rhode-Barbarigos, C. Schulin, N. Bel Hadj Ali, R. Motro and I.F.C. Smith, in Journal of Structural Engineering-Asce, vol. 138, p. 539−548, 2012.
2012 Published: Modeling Of A Collection Of Tensegrity Particles With A Non Smooth Discrete Element Method by E Postek, F Dubois, R Mozul - fluid.ippt.gov.pl
2012 Published: Modeling of caterpillar crawl using novel tensegrity structures by O Orki, A Ayali, O Shai… - Bioinspiration & …- iopscience.iop.org
2012 Published: Modular Tensegrity Structures: The” Tor Vergata” Footbridge by A Micheletti - Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering- Springer
2012 Published: Multiobjective Hybrid Optimization-Antioptimization for Force Design of Tensegrity Structures by J Zhang, M Ohsaki, I Elishakoff - hiroshima-u.ac.jp
2012 Published: Non linear behaviour of cell tensegrity models by A Alippi, A Bettucci, A Biagioni, D Conclusio… - AIP Conference …- link.aip.org
2012 Published: Non-linear vibrations of tensegrity structures by H Ahmadian Saieni - kth.diva-portal.org
2012 Published: Novel Form-Finding of Tensegrity Structures Using Ant Colony Systems by Y Chen, J Feng, Y Wu - link.aip.org
2012 Published: Novel technique for obtaining double-layer tensegrity grids by V Gómez-Jáuregui, R Arias, C Otero… - International Journal of …- Multi-Science
2012 Published: Optimal Design of Flat Tensegrity Structure Based on the Genetic Algorithm by CJ Lu, XD Wang, ZF Wu - Advanced Materials Research- Trans Tech Publ
2012 Published: Optimal Design of Valuted Tensegrity Structure Based on the Genetic Algorithm by C Lu, S Li - Proceedings of the 2012 Second International …- dl.acm.org
2012 Published: Parametric study of various tensegrity modules asbuilding blocks for slender booms by S Dalilsafaei, A Eriksson, A Micheletti, G Tibert - kth.diva-portal.org
2012 Published: Position and Force Analysis of a Planar Tensegrity-Based Compliant Mechanism by Y Moon, CD Crane III, RG Roberts - link.aip.org
2012 Published: Pre-Stressing Timber-Based Plate Tensegrity Structures by A Falk, PH Kirkegaard - forskningsbasen.deff.dk
2012 Published: Resonance entrainment of tensegrity structures via CPG control by TK Bliss, T Iwasaki, H Bart-Smith - Automatica- Elsevier
2012 Published: RNA under Tension: Folding Landscapes, Kinetic Partitioning Mechanism, and Molecular Tensegrity by JC Lin, C Hyeon, D Thirumalai - The journal of physical chemistry …- ACS Publications
2012 Published: Robust tensegrity polygons by J Geleji, T Jordán - bolyai.cs.elte.hu
2012 Published: Rolling tensegrity driven by pneumatic soft actuators by Y Koizumi, M Shibata, S Hirai - Robotics and Automation (ICRA …- ieeexplore.ieee.org
2012 Published: Self-equilibrium and stability of regular truncated tetrahedral tensegrity structures by JY Zhang, M Ohsaki - Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids- Elsevier
2012 Published: Self-equilibrium and super-stability of truncated regular polyhedral tensegrity structures: a unified analytical solution by LY Zhang, Y Li, YP Cao… - … of the Royal …- rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org
2012 Published: Solitary waves on tensegrity lattices by F Fraternali, L Senatore, C Daraio - Journal of the Mechanics and Physics …- Elsevier
2012 Published: Static Analysis of a Tensegrity Bridge using the Finite Element Method by MH Zgoul, A Alzamer, MR Elayyan, MA Quran - ju.edu.jo
2012 Published: Steady-state dynamics of a 3D tensegrity structure: Simulations and experiments by J Michielsen, RHB Fey, H Nijmeijer - International Journal of Solids and …- Elsevier
2012 Published: Stiffness and vibration properties of slender tensegrity structures by S Dalil Safaei - kth.diva-portal.org
2012 Published: Structural Performances of Single-layer Tensegrity Domes by D Cadoni, A Micheletti - International Journal of Space Structures- Multi-Science
2012 Published: Tensegrity and motor-driven effective interactions in a model cytoskeleton by S Wang, PG Wolynes - The Journal of Chemical Physics- link.aip.org
2012 Published: Tensegrity and plasma for skin regeneration by S Pacini, G Morucci, M Ruggiero… - Skin Research and …- Wiley Online Library
2012 Published: Tensegrity by DE Ingber, M Landau - Scholarpedia- scholarpedia.org
2012 Published: Tensegrity finite element models of mechanical tests of individual cells by J Bursa, R Lebis, J Holata - Technology and Health Care- IOS Press
2012 Published: Tensegrity konstrukcije; Inovativni sustavi laganih konstrukcija by D Skejić, B Androić, D Bačić - Prostor: znanstveni časopis za …- hrcak.srce.hr
2012 Published: Tensegrity structures: from theory to design and implementation by M Abdulkareem, M Mahfouf… - 14th IMMPETUS …- hal.archives-ouvertes.fr
2012 Published: Tensegrity Structures; Innovative Light Structural Systems by D Skejić, B Androić, D Bačić - Prostor: znanstveni časopis za …- hrcak.srce.hr
2012 Published: Tensegrity Systeme mit Matlab/Octave by DIB Lindner - portal.tugraz.at
2012 Published: Tensegrity-based formation control of unmanned vehicles by SY Lau, W Naeem - Control (CONTROL)UKACC …- ieeexplore.ieee.org
2012 Published: Tensegrity-inspired nanocomposite structures by JH Lee - smartech.gatech.edu
2012 Published: Tensile Tensegrity Structures by R.E. Skelton and K. Nagase, in International Journal of Space Structures, vol. 27, num. 2, p. 131−137, 2012.
2012 Published: The Analyses of Triangular Tensegrity Prisms' Pairs by Z Csšlleová - Procedia Engineering- Elsevier
2012 Published: The Art of Tensegrity by K Snelson - International Journal of Space Structures- Multi-Science
2012 Published: The Stress Nature of Tensegrity Units by S Yong-qun - Journal of Shijiazhuang Institute of Railway …- en.cnki.com.cn
2012 Published: Tone, Tensegrity and Chiropractic by DC Christopher Kent, DD Palmer
2012 Published: Wind-Induced Dynamic Analysis of the Flat Tensegrity Structures in Time Domain by CJ Lu, XD Wang, SN Lu - Applied Mechanics and Materials- Trans Tech Publ
2012 Published: Y Kanno - Journal of the Operations Research Society of Japan- …- orsj.or.jp



Tensegrity Chronology, References


The most comprehensive timeline and bibliography is published and maintained in Tensegrity Structures by Gómez-Jáuregui. He has an up-to-date bibliography on his website:
For the years 2011, publications are accesible on http://tensegridad.es/publications.html#Tensegrity_2011.
For the years 2012-2013, publications are accesible on http://tensegridad.es/publications.html#Tensegrity_2012-13.
His thesis and its bibliography provided much information that began this article, particularly chapter 2, Background.

See Burkhardt's A Practical Guide to Tensegrity Design 2nd edition Copyright 2004-2008 for a good history.

Snelson's website has a list of his exhibitions: http://www.kennethsnelson.net/icons/bio.htm

[1] Chronological Biography of Richard Buckminster Fuller hosted by Buckminster Fuller Institute (BFI), at http://bfi.org/about-bucky/biography/chronological-biography accessed 16 July 2010

Portal To Basic Concepts
A series of pages addressing critical concepts; see also the index.

Tensegrity> Benefits, Chronology, Definitions, Dynamics, Force, Geodesic Dome, Humor, Mast, Nexorade, Prestress, Pneumatics, prestress, Stability, Stiffness, Stress, Videos
Compression> Strut: Curved, Linear, Nucleated, Ring, Spring
Tension> Floating, Tendon, Membrane, Wire Roap, Materials

Forms> Bicycle wheel, Buckminsterfullerene, Folding, Musical instruments, Plane, Prism, Skew, Specific Strength, Springs, Torus, Tuning, Wall, Weaving
Materials> Bone, DNA, Fabric, Glass, Inox, Integrin, Spring, Tendon Materials, Wire Roap
Founders> Fuller, Snelson