Read here about tensegrity in the context of consideration of "torus", a topological form.

For torus-shaped struts, see ring struts.

Definition of Torus

"Torus" is the formal, well-defined topological name given to the shape known colloquially as a ring, life preserver, doughnut, bagel, or hemorrhoid cushion. the round, ring-like form formal name given to the "doughnut" form, being a circumference

Its definition in abstract, mathematical terms, from wikipedia: A torus (pl. tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle. In most contexts it is assumed that the axis does not touch the circle and in this case the surface has a ring shape and is called a ring torus or simply torus if the ring shape is implicit.


Below is a selection of torus shapes formed by tensegrity constructions.

Bicycle Wheel by Flemons

Tom Flemons created and published a wheel within a wheel.

Large tensegrity torus with nucleated 6 strut tensegrity, portraying a tensegrity model of a spoked bicycle wheel, by Tom Flemons

For more information, see Flemons, Tom or the Bicycle wheel.

Jakob Torus

Jakob AG, a Swiss rope-system manufacture, constructed a tensegrity structure that outlines a torus.

Jakob Tensegrity Torus at night, two views.

For more information see Jakob Tensegrity Torus.

Bent Torus by StructureMode

StructureMode, an engineering firm, constructed a torus that conforms with the perimeter of a hyperbolic paraboloid.

Tension Pavilion Grasshopper Model.jpg
A torus, bent to support fabric, is formed by 24 3-strut tensegrity prisms. Vision at the London 2016 Exposition.

For more information, see Tension Pavilion 2016.

Hexagonal Rings by Motro


Hexagonal tensegrity rings by Motro, from Structural Morphology Of Tensegrity Systems by Motro.

For more information, see Motro, René.

Tensegrity Prototype TG3 by SMiA

Structural Morphology in Architecture constructed a tensegrity structure that outlines the shape of a torus.

12 strut tensegrity torus with 6 strut roof, by SMiA

Designs for a 12 strut tensegrity torus with 6 strut roof, by SMiA

Full report:

Tensegrity Prototype Tg3 by Pena

Links and References

Pages that discuss torus:

Portal to Polyhedra
A series on polyhedra and associated tensegrities
  1. Platonic: Cube, Dodecahedron, Icosahedron, Octahedron, Tetrahedron
  2. Archimedan: Cuboctahedron, Jitterbug, Rhombic Dodecahedron, Stella Octangula, Tricontahedron
  3. Form: Prism, Torus
  4. Concepts: Naming
Access by no. of struts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 21, 30, 60, 90, 270, 540; Procedures: 3, 30