Recent Changes

Thursday, February 9

Monday, January 30

Wednesday, December 28

  1. page Howard, T. C. edited ... Overview T. C. Howard was an architect and engineer at Synergetics, Inc, the firm that design…
    ...
    Overview
    T. C. Howard was an architect and engineer at Synergetics, Inc, the firm that designed, constructed and deployed many of R. Buckminster Fuller's early public works.
    Bio
    T.C. Howard was a third-year student at North Carolina State University, Raleigh in 1949 when he met Fuller. Duncan Stuart and Jim Fitzgibbon ( known to them as Fitz). Duncan and Fitzgibbon were professors at NC State and began research under Fuller Research Foundation. This research led to Skybreak Carolina Corp. (Bucky not a member) which was the first dome air-lifted by the Marines (dome was designed and built by TC Howard in Fitzgibbon's backyard- lath or slat dome 1952- Fitzgibbon later had it covered with chicken wire and sprayed with something used in aircrafts. It was air-lifted on Jan. 28, 1954. A photo of Fuller observing the flight is well known. At that time Howard was in the Army- Skybreak Carolina members were in the second helicopter observing the domes flight).
    Howard and other NC State design students designed an automated geodesic cotton mill factory with octet trusses in a 3 week class lecture with Bucky Jan. 1952. This may have been Fuller's first exposure to the octet truss. Fuller later patented it. Fuller invited Howard to join him in New York the summer of 1952 with some other students. Bucky did not have an office and he lived in a two room apartment with his wife, so he convinced his friend George Nelson to hire the students during the day and let Fuller use the office space at night. Their task was to design a geodesic dome home for MOMA and Nelson was to design the interior space.
    During the above work, Ford came calling. Ford wanted to cover their Rotunda Building that had been at the 1939 Chicago World's Fair and moved to Dearborn, Michigan. TC Howard designed the spherical truss that was built . It is a different geometry than what Bucky patented. The drawings were approved even though no one had a license, since it was classified as a skylight as opposed to a building. Ford workers built the dome 1953. There is a photograph of Fuller holding a model with truss behind him by Howard. Most photos at that time were taken by Howard for Synergetics, Inc work, so Howard never appears beside Fuller. Howard became very close with Bucky and Anne that summer, and was treated as warmly as a son.
    Fuller, Howard, and Jim Fitzgibbon co-founded Synergetics, Inc in 1955. Bucky was honorary president (his wife and his ex brother-in-law who was an attorney, Bill Parkhurst actually owned the company) They all lived in NY, but Synergetics, Inc was in Raleigh, NC.
    Fuller cut ties with Synergetics, Inc after construction of the Union Tank Car Dome (designed by TC Howard). During that construction in 1958, Fuller's involvement was considered to have jeopardized the structural integrity.
    The Exhibition at MOMA 1959 was put together by Synergetics, Inc. TC designed and built the Octet Truss, Shoji Sadao designed and built the "tensegrity" mast and the radome was by Geometrics, Inc (Howard designed its foundation and erected it). During this time, the MOMA curator Johnson realized Fuller did not design anything himself. To rectify this he offered to have an additional exhibit inside the Museum by all of the artist, designers and architects. Bucky did not see either exhibit until opening day and objected that the curator had credited Kenneth Snelson. Snelson photographed the entire show and MOMA still has his photos.
    Howard recognized Snelson's talent and when Howard was asked to design the Tower of Light for the 1964 NY World's Fair he specifically designed it to house Snelson's tower sculpture.
    Today
    Today many of
    ...
    are found mergedalong with Fuller's and available at the Stanford Library.Library archive.
    Links and References
    [[include component="page" wikiName="tensegrity" page="Portal To Architecture" ]]
    (view changes)
    8:45 am
  2. page Howard, T. C. edited Read here about an architect and designer who was a critical contributor to early work on tensegrit…
    Read here about an architect and designer who was a critical contributor to early work on tensegrity.
    Overview
    ...
    Howard was the leadan architect and
    Bio
    ...
    was a third-year student at
    ...
    Carolina State University, Raleigh in 1949
    ...
    he met Fuller, DuncanFuller. Duncan Stuart and
    Howard and other NC State design students designed an automated geodesic cotton mill factory with octet trusses in a 3 week class lecture with Bucky Jan. 1952. This may have been Fuller's first exposure to the octet truss. Fuller later patented it. Fuller invited Howard to join him in New York the summer of 1952 with some other students. Bucky did not have an office and he lived in a two room apartment with his wife, so he convinced his friend George Nelson to hire the students during the day and let Fuller use the office space at night. Their task was to design a geodesic dome home for MOMA and Nelson was to design the interior space.
    During the above work, Ford came calling. Ford wanted to cover their Rotunda Building that had been at the 1939 Chicago World's Fair and moved to Dearborn, Michigan. TC Howard designed the spherical truss that was built . It is a different geometry than what Bucky patented. The drawings were approved even though no one had a license, since it was classified as a skylight as opposed to a building. Ford workers built the dome 1953. There is a photograph of Fuller holding a model with truss behind him by Howard. Most photos at that time were taken by Howard for Synergetics, Inc work, so Howard never appears beside Fuller. Howard became very close with Bucky and Anne that summer, and was treated as warmly as a son.
    (view changes)
    8:45 am
  3. page Photonium, Tower of Light by Snelson edited ... Overview Synergetics, Inc. was responsible for the Tower of Light structure. T. C. Howard, an…
    ...
    Overview
    Synergetics, Inc. was responsible for the Tower of Light structure. T. C. Howard, an architect and engineer, was the President of Synergetics and designer of the Tower. For the 12-billion candlepower Tower of Light Howard employed colored gelatin sheets in light fixtures and color-coated bulbs in an arrangement of lighting to vary in a number of combinations of tone, hue and intensity against 1200 aluminum panels which formed the building's facade. At the fair Howard also designed the Pavilion (a geodesic dome later remodeled for the Queens Zoo) and a geodesic dome screen used in the Transportation Pavilion. [1]
    ...
    Kenneth Snelson.
    Snelson and Howard were friends. They had worked together on the Museum of Modern Art exhibition in 1959. Howard admired Snelson's talent and the Tower of Light was designed to house and feature Snelson's tower sculpture. The entrance sculptures were added later.
    Construction began in May 1963. Snelson's sculpture in the Tower of Light, "Photonium," stood in the center. In addition a construction of suspended aluminum tubes measuring 30 X 35 feet adorned the entrance to the pavilion.
    (view changes)
    3:55 am
  4. page 92 Prism Tensegrity edited ... 92 Prism Tensegrity Photographs dated to April 1979 show R. Buckminster Fuller holding a tens…
    ...
    92 Prism Tensegrity
    Photographs dated to April 1979 show R. Buckminster Fuller holding a tensegrity sphere composed of 92 Prisms. Its structure, as analyzed by Taffgoch and Adrian Rossiter is summarized below.
    [[image=RBF{RBF with 92
    ...
    tensegrity 19790418 B.jpg caption="RBFB.jpg} RBF with 92
    ...
    tensegrity, April 1979"]]
    [[image=RBF
    1979
    {RBF
    with 92 prism tensegrity 19790418.jpg caption="RBF19790418.jpg} RBF with 92
    ...
    tensegrity, April 1979"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity
    1979
    {Tensegrity
    Prism 960 struts by Taffgoch.png caption="TensegrityTaffgoch.png} Tensegrity Prism 960 struts by Taffgoch"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity
    Taffgoch
    {Tensegrity
    Prism Animated Overlay by Taffgoch.gif caption="TensegrityTaffgoch.gif} Tensegrity Prism Animated Overlay by Taffgoch"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity
    Taffgoch
    {Tensegrity
    Prism inner
    ...
    icosa by Taffgoch.png caption="TensegrityTaffgoch.png} Tensegrity Prism inner
    ...
    shown by TaffGoch"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity
    TaffGoch
    {Tensegrity
    Prism one highlighted by Taffgoch.png caption="TensegrityTaffgoch.png} Tensegrity Prism one highlighted by Taffgoch"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity
    Taffgoch
    {Tensegrity
    Prism outer
    ...
    icosa by Taffgoch.png caption="TensegrityTaffgoch.png} Tensegrity Prism outer
    ...
    tendons by TaffGoch"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity
    TaffGoch
    {Tensegrity
    Prism outer
    ...
    icosa by Taffgoch.png caption="TensegrityTaffgoch.png} Tensegrity Prism outer
    ...
    icosa by TaffGoch"]]TaffGoch
    The sphere is a tensegrity sphere, composed of many adjacent prism tensegrties
    See "prism" tensegrities: http://tensegritywiki.com/Prism
    (view changes)
    3:53 am
  5. page 92 Prism Tensegrity edited ... 92 Prism Tensegrity Photographs dated to April 1979 show R. Buckminster Fuller holding a tens…
    ...
    92 Prism Tensegrity
    Photographs dated to April 1979 show R. Buckminster Fuller holding a tensegrity sphere composed of 92 Prisms. Its structure, as analyzed by Taffgoch and Adrian Rossiter is summarized below.
    [[image=RBF with 92 prism tensegrity 19790418 B.jpg caption="RBF with 92 prism tensegrity, April 1979"]]
    [[image=RBF with 92 prism tensegrity 19790418.jpg caption="RBF with 92 prism tensegrity, April 1979"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity Prism 960 struts by Taffgoch.png caption="Tensegrity Prism 960 struts by Taffgoch"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity Prism Animated Overlay by Taffgoch.gif caption="Tensegrity Prism Animated Overlay by Taffgoch"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity Prism inner tendons icosa by Taffgoch.png caption="Tensegrity Prism inner tendons icosahedron shown by TaffGoch"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity Prism one highlighted by Taffgoch.png caption="Tensegrity Prism one highlighted by Taffgoch"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity Prism outer and inner tendons icosa by Taffgoch.png caption="Tensegrity Prism outer and inner tendons by TaffGoch"]]
    [[image=Tensegrity Prism outer tendons icosa by Taffgoch.png caption="Tensegrity Prism outer tendons icosa by TaffGoch"]]
    The sphere is a tensegrity sphere, composed of many adjacent prism tensegrties
    See "prism" tensegrities: http://tensegritywiki.com/Prism
    Mexican method 6V sphere, composed of 92 prisms. 540 struts total
    12 pentagonal prisms. = 60 struts.
    80 hexagonal prisms = 480 struts
    Assuming uniform struts (all the same length), the pentagonal prisms will be 20% higher if they had the same approximate edge length as the hexagons. This longer edge should be visible in the photograph, and may result in a slight twist.
    The tendon nets can be comprehended by outer, inner and interstitial
    Outer purple
    Inner blue
    Interstitial orange
    The tendon nets could be continuous. "An undirected graph has an Eulerian cycle if and only if every vertex
    has even degree, and all of its vertices with nonzero degree belong to
    a single connected component."
    Each prism has a winding direction.
    To physically construct this tensegrity: Since each prism is rigid, each can be assembled separately, then connected to adjacent prisms, by the corners (not the edges.)
    To construct this tensegrity in Rossiter's Antirpsim dome_layer program:
    // tens_strut_string.inc
    #include "woods.inc"
    #include "metals.inc"
    #macro disp_edge(edge, col)
    #if(!v_equal(verts[edges[edge][0]], verts[edges[edge][1]]) )
    #if (col.x=0)
    cylinder{verts[edges[edge][0]] verts[edges[edge][1]] edge_sz
    texture{ T_Wood3 }
    }
    #end
    #if (col.x=1)
    cylinder{verts[edges[edge][0]] verts[edges[edge][1]] edge_sz/3
    texture{pigment{colour <0.8, 0.8, 0.6>}}
    }
    #end
    #end
    #end
    I have attached images showing the result of applying it to a
    spherical 3F icosahedron dual (the commands will be valid
    for the next snapshot of Antiprism, 23.99+07 or greater). One
    is the basic model viewed in Antiview
    dome_layer -t prism geo_3_d | antiview -v 0.015
    The other is a the model processed by off2pov, with a custom include
    file, and rendered in POV-Ray
    off_trans -y D5 geo_3_d | dome_layer -i -t prism | off_color -e M -m map_0:1:1:1 | off2pov -v 0.015 -i tens_strut_string.inc > pri_tens_geo_3_d.pov
    [off_trans -y lines up the model on a 5-fold axis. dome_layer -i uses
    index numbers for colouring. The off_color command makes the strut
    colour 0 and the strings colour 1. off2pov converts it to POV-Ray
    format, and the custom include file tens_strut_string.inc (included
    below) draws the elements to make the model look like a tensegrity.]
    On my system, I rendered this with
    povray declare=AspectRatio=1 +a +p +H2000 +W2000 pri_tens_geo_3_d.pov
    A similar 4V is proposed by TaffGoch. This Mexican method 4V sphere, composed of 42 prisms. 240 struts total
    12 pentagonal prisms. = 60 struts.
    30 hexagonal prisms = 480 struts

    WORK IN PROGRESS
    Links and References
    (view changes)
    3:52 am

More