Read here about Graham Scarr, a tensegrity researcher who specializes in biotensegrity and human anatomical studies.

About Graham Scarr

Graham Scarr is a chartered biologist and osteopath with a particular interest in structural biology and has published several peer-reviewed articles and a book on biotensegrity.

After graduating in microbiology, he spent several years developing his skills in a bacteriological research lab before undergoing a career change to study and practice as an osteopath. Osteopathy recognizes that the normal relationship between structure and function is essential to the health of the human body and that this can be disturbed by trauma, posture and pathology. Manual techniques are then applied to change the structural imbalances that result from these factors and allow the body’s self-healing abilities to restore normal function. His particular approach to treatment makes use of very gently applied techniques making it suitable for all ages from newborn babies to the elderly.

Scarr’s interest in biotensegrity started in 2003 after reading articles by Stephen Levin, an orthopaedic surgeon who recognized the importance of biotensegrity to living organisms, and realized that it provided a much better explanation for many of the things that were observable in clinical practice. A life-long interest in natural geometry and a thorough grounding in anatomy have enabled him to work with Stephen Levin and develop new models that are progressing our understanding of the structure-function relationship in biology and the human body in particular.

Graham Scarr has been practicing as an osteopath since 1988 in Stapleford, Nottingham, UK and is currently a Fellow of the Society of Biology and Fellow of the Linnean Society of London.

His address: Graham Scarr, 60 Edward Street, Stapleford, Nottinghamshire NG9 8FJ, UK.
His website,

Selected Readings by Scarr

Below, a selection of articles by Scarr on tensegrity and tensegrity-related issues.


A comprehensive guide to biotensegrity, from the origin of the concept to current research on the human cranium and elbow. In Biotensegrity: The Structural Basis of Life Graham Scarr brings clarity to this complex subject. Based largely on the work of Stephen Levin, Scarr explains musculoskeletal anatomy in light of new research, in ways that can help the layman, robotocist and therapeutic practitioner.

Biotensegrity book publisher's official site,

Model of the Cranium Vault as a Tensegrity Structure

Graham Scarr reasons that a curved strut, icosahedral tensegrity provides an elegant model of the human skull, or cranial vault. The model helps understand how the cranial vault could retain its stability without relying on an expansive force from an underlying brain, a position currently unresolved. In the model, the tension of the dural membranes is deployed in such a way as to maintain a separation of the bones of the neurocranium, a field attracting a great deal of interest in understanding some of the pathologies affecting the neonate. This is a modified version of a paper published in the International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine 11 (2008) 80-89.


Simple Geometry in Complex Organisms

Simple geometry in complex organisms by Graham Scarr doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2008.11.007, This paper has been accepted for publication in the ‘Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies’ and is currently in press.


Links and References

Scarr's website:
Biotensegrity book publisher's official site,
Scarr's Osteopathic practice website:

Portal to Biotensegrity
A series on biotensegrity, based on the book by Graham Scarr.
1. Introduction> What is tensegrity? Founders Ioganson, Emmerich, Fuller, Snelson. Concepts Sphere, Bicycle wheel, Geodesic Dome, Black Mountain College
2. Geometry> Triangulation, Close-Packing, Platonic Polyhedra, IVM, VE
3. Balancing Forces> Basic models: Prism, T-Helixes, 6 Strut Sphere, Icosahedron; Floating, Fractal Hierarchies
4. Mechanics> Stress, Strain, Prestress, Dynamics, Force, Biomechanics, Kinematics, Mechanobiology, Stability, Stiffness
5. Cell> Cells, Biological, Cytoskeleton, integrins
6. Helixes> Helix, Springs, Spectrin, Collagen, Tube
7. Joints> Animals, Spine, Elbow, Bone
8. Shells> Skull, Lungs
9. Function> Compression, Tension, Strut, Tendon, Membrane
10. Patterns> Rhombic Dodecahedron, Fibonacci sequence, Golden Mean, Equivalence, Penrose, Quasicrystals, Dimension, Hyperbolic Geometry
11. Biotensegrity> Skeleton, Bones, Muscle, Fascia, Microvacuolar system, Mesokinetics, Kinematics,
12. Summary> Birth, Evolution

Portal to Structural Anatomy
A series on the body's musculoskeletal structure
Anatomy:Animals, Bone, Lungs, Pelvis, Spine, Elbow
Concepts: Anatomy Trains, Biotensegrity, Birth, Mechanobiology, Movement Therapy
Tools: Clothing, Prosthetics
People: Earnhardt, Flemons, Guimberteau, Levin, Myers, Scarr